Methodological synthesis of research using multi-dimensional analysis

Authors

  • Larissa Goulart Northern Arizona University
  • Margaret Wood Northern Arizona University

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1558/jrds.18454

Keywords:

multi-dimensional analysis, research synthesis, methodological synthesis, factor analysis

Abstract

Since 1984 when Douglas Biber first conducted a multi-dimensional (MD) analysis, MD analyses have expanded in scope. However, there has yet to be a comprehensive survey of this body of research. This methodological synthesis conducts a large-scale survey of MD analyses dating back to Biber’s (1984) dissertation. An unprecedented total of 230 studies including peer-reviewed articles and dissertations were coded for a variety of study characteristics and methodological choices. The results of this survey show that researchers have made a wide variety of methodological decisions including the choice of tagger, factor loading and communality cut-off values, and types of additional statistical analyses conducted. It was also found that reporting practices of MD analyses have been less than optimal, lacking information necessary for the replicability of the study. The study concludes with a set of recommendations for future MD analyses in relation to reporting practices and the goals of future studies.

Author Biographies

Larissa Goulart, Northern Arizona University

Larissa Goulart is a PhD candidate in Applied Linguistics at Northern Arizona University. Before coming to NAU, she taught Portuguese as a Fulbright Language Teaching Assistant (FLTA) at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln. She received her MA in English Language Teaching with a focus on English for Specific Purposes from the University of Warwick, UK. Her research interests include corpus linguistics applications to language teaching and second language writing for university purposes.

Margaret Wood, Northern Arizona University

Margaret Wood is a Ph.D. student in Applied Linguistics at Northern Arizona University. She earned her M.A. in TESL at NAU in 2018. She was the recipient of a William J. Fulbright award and served the 2018–2019 academic year as an English Teaching Assistant at Savannakhet University in Lao P.D.R. Her research interests lie in the field of Corpus Linguistics and Law, and she is interested in particular in the characteristics of legislative language, and the applications of corpus linguistic methods to statutory interpretation. She currently works as an editorial assistant for the peer-reviewed journal Register Studies.

References

*Aguado-Jiménez, P., Pérez-Paredes, P., and Sánchez, P. (2012). Exploring the use of multidimensional analysis of learner language to promote register awareness. System, 40(1), 90–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2012.01.008

Arnoff, M. (1985). Orthography and linguistic theory. Language, 61, 28–72. https://doi.org/10.2307/413420

*Asghar, S. A., Mahmood, M. A., and Asghar, Z. M. (2018). A multidimensional analysis of Pakistani legal English. International Journal of English Linguistics, 8(5), 215–229. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v8n5p215

*Atkinson, D. (1992). The Evolution of Medical Research Writing from 1735 to 1985: The Case of the Edinburgh Medical Journal. Applied linguistics, 13(4), 337–374. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/13.4.337

Berber Sardinha, T. (2019). Using Multi-Dimensional Analysis to Detect Representations of National Cultures. In T. Berber Sardinha and M. Veirano Pinto (Eds), Multi-dimensional Analysis: Research Methods and Current Issues, 231–252. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350023857.0021

*Berber Sardinha, T., Kauffmann, C., and Acunzo, C. M. (2014). A multi-dimensional analysis of register variation in Brazilian Portuguese. Corpora, 9(2), 239–271. https://doi.org/10.3366/cor.2014.0059

Berber Sardinha, T., and Pinto, M. V. (Eds). (2014). Multi-dimensional Analysis, 25 Years On: A Tribute to Douglas Biber (Vol. 60). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.60

Berber Sardinha, T., Pinto, M. V., Mayer, C., Zuppardi, M. C., and Kauffmann, C. H. (2019). Adding registers to a previous Multi-dimensional Analysis. In T. Berber Sardinha and M. Veirano Pinto (Eds.), Multi-dimensional Analysis: Research Methods and Current Issues, 165. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350023857

*Besnier, N. (1988). The Linguistic Relationships of Spoken and Written Nukulaelae Registers. Language, 64, 707–736. https://doi.org/10.2307/414565

Biber, D. (1984). A Model of Textual Relations within the Written and Spoken Modes (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The United States, University of Southern California.

*Biber, D. (1985). Investigating macroscopic textual variation through multifeature/multidimensional analyses. Linguistics, 23(2), 337–360. https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1985.23.2.337

*Biber, D. (1988). Variation Across Speech and Writing. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511621024

*Biber, D. (2003). Variation among university spoken and written registers: A new multi-dimensional analysis. In Corpus analysis, 47–70. Brill: Rodopi. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004334410_005

*Biber, D. (2008). Corpus-based analyses of discourse: Dimensions of variation in conversation. In Advances in Discourse Studies, 110–124. Abingdon: Routledge.

*Biber, D. (2014). Using multi-dimensional analysis to explore cross-linguistic universals of register variation. Languages in Contrast, 14(1), 7–34. https://doi.org/10.1075/lic.14.1.02bib

*Biber, D., and Conrad, S. (2019). Genre, Register and Style. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

*Biber, D., Conrad, S., Reppen, R., Byrd, P., and Helt, M. (2002). Speaking and writing in the university: A multidimensional comparison. TESOL Quarterly, 36(1), 9–48. https://doi.org/10.2307/3588359

*Biber, D., Davies, M., Jones, J. K., and Tracy-Ventura, N. (2006). Spoken and written register variation in Spanish: A multi-dimensional analysis. Corpora, 1(1), 1–37. https://doi.org/10.3366/cor.2006.1.1.1

*Biber, D., and Egbert, J. (2016). Register variation on the searchable web: A multi-dimensional analysis. Journal of English Linguistics, 44(2), 95–137. https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424216628955

*Biber, D., and Egbert, J. (2018). Register Variation Online. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316388228

*Biber, D., and Gray, B. (2013). Discourse characteristics of writing and speaking task types on the TOEFL ibt® test: a lexico-grammatical analysis. ETS Research Report Series, 2013(1), 1–128. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2333-8504.2013.tb02311.x

*Biber, D., and Hared, M. (1992). Dimensions of register variation in Somali. Language Variation and Change, 4(1), 41–75. https://doi.org/10.1017/S095439450000065X

*Biber, D., and Kurjian, J. (2007). Towards a taxonomy of web registers and text types: A multi-dimensional analysis. In Corpus Linguistics and the Web, 109–131. Brill: Rodopi. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789401203791_008

Brown, P., and Fraser, C. (1979). Speech as a marker of situation. In Social Markers in Speech, 33–62. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cantos-Gomez, P. (2019). Multivariate Statistics Commonly Used in Multi-Dimensional Analysis. In T. Berber Sardinha and M. Veirano Pinto (Eds), Multi-Dimensional Analysis: Research Methods and Current Issues, 97. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350023857.0014

*Cao, Y., and Xiao, R. (2013). A multi-dimensional contrastive study of English abstracts by native and non-native writers. Corpora, 8(2), 209–234. https://doi.org/10.3366/cor.2013.0041

Carroll, J. (1960). Vectors of prose style. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Style in Language, 283–292. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cattell, R. B. (1978). The Scientific Use of Factor Analysis. New York: Plenum. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-2262-7

Clarke, I., and Grieve, J. (2019). Stylistic variation on the Donald Trump Twitter account: A linguistic analysis of tweets posted between 2009 and 2018. PloS one, 14(9). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222062

*Connor-Linton, J. (1988). Author’s style and world-view in nuclear discourse: A quantitative analysis. Multilingua 7, 95–132. https://doi.org/10.1515/mult.1988.7.1-2.95

*Conrad, S. and Biber, D. (2001). Variation in English: Multi-dimensional Studies. Abingdon: Routledge.

Csomay, E. (2004). Linguistic variation within university classroom talk: A corpus-based perspective. Linguistics and Education, 15(3), 243–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2005.03.001

*Csomay, E. (2015). A corpus-based analysis of linguistic variation in teacher and student presentations in university settings. In Corpus-based Research in Applied Linguistics, 1–24. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.66.01cso

Doolan, S. M. (2020). The influence of sources on First-Year Composition L1 student writing. In U. Romer, E. Friginal, and V. Cortes Advances in Corpus-based Research on Academic Writing: Effects of Discipline, Register, and Writer Expertise, 89–115. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.95.04doo

*Egbert, J. (2012). Style in nineteenth century fiction: A multi-dimensional analysis. Scientific Study of Literature, 2(2), 167–198. https://doi.org/10.1075/ssol.2.2.01egb

*Egbert, J. (2014). Reader perceptions of linguistic variation in published academic writing. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Northern Arizona University.

Egbert, J., and Staples, S. (2019). Doing Multi-Dimensional Analysis in SPSS, SAS, and R. Multi-Dimensional Analysis: Research Methods and Current Issues, 125. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350023857.0015

Ervin-Tripp, S. (1972). On sociolinguistic rules: Alternation and co-occurrence. Directions in Sociolinguistics, 213–250.

*Francis, E. (2013). MisInfoWars: A linguistic analysis of deceptive and credible news. [Unpublished Master’s Thesis]. Simon Fraser University

*Friginal, E. (2008). Linguistic variation in the discourse of outsourced call centers. Discourse Studies, 10(6), 715–736. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445608096570

*Friginal, E. (2009). The Language of Outsourced Call Centers: A Corpus-based Study of Cross-cultural Interaction (Vol. 34). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.34

*Friginal, E. (2015). Telephone interactions: A multidimensional comparison. In Corpus-based Research in Applied Linguistics, 25–48. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.66.02fri

Friginal, E., and Hardy, J. A. (2014). Conducting Multi-Dimensional analysis using SPSS. In T. Berber Sardinha and M. Veirano Pinto (Eds), Multi-Dimensional Analysis, 25 Years on: A Tribute to Douglas Biber, 298–316. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.60.10fri

Friginal, E., and Hardy, J. A. (2019). From Factors to Dimensions: Interpreting Linguistic Co-occurrence Patterns. In T. Berber Sardinha and M. Veirano Pinto (Eds.), Multi-Dimensional Analysis: Research Methods and Current Issues, 145. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350023857.0016

Galmés, C. (2016). Register variation in William Godwin: A multidimensional analysis. [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Universitat de les Illes Balears.

*Gardner, S., Nesi, H., and Biber, D. (2019). Discipline, level, genre: Integrating situational perspectives in a new MD analysis of university student writing. Applied Linguistics, 40(4), 646–674. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amy005

*Gonzalez, Z. M. G. (2019). Linguística de Corpus e a Linguística Forense: a questão da autoria. [Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation] PUC-SP.

Gorsuch, R. L. (1990). Common factor analysis versus component analysis: Some well and little known facts. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25(1), 33–39. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr2501_3

*Gray, B. E. (2011). Exploring academic writing through corpus linguistics: When discipline tells only part of the story. [Unpublished Doctoral dissertation] Northern Arizona University.

*Gray, B. (2015). Linguistic Variation in Research Articles. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Gray, B. (2019). Tagging and counting linguistic features for Multi-dimensional Analysis. In T. Berber Sardinha and M. Veirano Pinto (Eds), Multi-dimensional Analysis: Research Methods and Current Issues, 43-66. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350023857.0011

*Grieve, J., Biber, D., Friginal, E., and Nekrasova, T. (2011). Variation among blogs: A multi-dimensional analysis. In A Mehler, S Sharoff and M Santini (Eds), Genres on the Web: Computational Models and Empirical Studies, 303–322. Berlin: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9178-9_14

Hall, A. (1964). Introductory Linguistics. Philadelphia, PA: Chilton Books.

*Hardy, J. A., and Friginal, E. (2016). Genre variation in student writing: A multi-dimensional analysis. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 22, 119–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2016.03.002

*Hardy, J. A. and Römer, U. (2013). Revealing disciplinary variation in student writing: A multi-dimensional analysis of the Michigan Corpus of Upper-level Student Papers (MICUSP). Corpora, 8(2), 183–207. https://doi.org/10.3366/cor.2013.0040

*Hared, M. (1992). Modernization and Standardization in Somali Press Writing. [Unpub­lished doctoral dissertation]. University of Southern California.

*He, M. (2017). A Comparative Multidimensional Study of the English Translation of Lunyu (The Analects): A Corpus-based Analysis. GEMA Online® Journal of Language Studies, 17(3). https://doi.org/10.17576/gema-2017-1703-03

Hymes, D. (1974). Ways of speaking. Explorations in the ethnography of speaking, 1(1974), 433–451. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511611810.029

*Iberri-Shea, G. (2011). Speaking in front of the class: A multi-dimensional comparison of university student public speech and university language. Classroom Discourse, 2(2), 251–267. https://doi.org/10.1080/19463014.2011.614061

*Kessapidu, S. (1997). A critical linguistic approach to a corpus of business letters in Greek. Discourse and Society, 8(4), 479–500. https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926597008004003

*Kim, Y. J. (1990). Register variation in Korean: A corpus-based study [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Southern California.

Loewen, S., and Gonulal, T. (2015). Exploratory factor analysis and principal components analysis. In L. Plonsky (Ed.) Advancing Quantitative Methods in Second Language Research, 182–212. Abingdon: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315870908-9

*Lord, V. B., Davis, B., and Mason, P. (2008). Stance-shifting in language used by sex offenders: Five case studies. Psychology, Crime and Law, 14(4), 357–379. https://doi.org/10.1080/10683160701770153

*Liimatta, A. (2019). Exploring register variation on Reddit: A multi-dimensional study of language use on a social media website. Register Studies, 1(2), 269–295. https://doi.org/10.1075/rs.18005.lii

*Nini, A. (2017). Register variation in malicious forensic texts. International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law, 24(1), 99–126. https://doi.org/10.1558/ijsll.30173

Nini, A. (2019). The multi-dimensional analysis tagger. In T. Berber Sardinha and M. Veirano Pinto (Eds.), Multi-Dimensional Analysis: Research Methods and Current Issues, 67–97. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350023857.0012

*Pan, F. (2018). A multidimensional analysis of L1–L2 differences across three advanced levels. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, 36(2), 117–131. https://doi.org/10.2989/16073614.2018.1476162

*Parodi, G. (2007). Variation across registers in Spanish: exploring the El Grial PUCV corpus. In Parodi, G. (Eds). Working with Spanish Corpora, 11–53. London: Continuum.

Picoral, A., Staples, S., and Reppen, R., (2020). Automated annotation of L2 English academic writing: An evaluation of software tools. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research.

Plonsky, L., and Gonulal, T. (2015). Methodological synthesis in quantitative L2 research: A review of reviews and a case study of exploratory factor analysis. Language Learning, 65(1), 9–36. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12111

Pool, I. (1973). Handbook of Communication. Houghton Mifflin School.

*Quaglio, P. (2009). Television Dialogue: The Sitcom Friends vs. Natural Conversation (Vol. 36). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.36

*Reppen, R. (1994). Variation in elementary student writing. [Unpublished doctoral dis­sertation]. Northern Arizona University.

Tabachnick, B. G. and Fidell, L. (2007), Using Multivariate Statistics, Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

*Titak, A., and Roberson, A. (2013). Dimensions of web registers: An exploratory multi-dimensional comparison. Corpora, 8(2), 235–260. https://doi.org/10.3366/cor.2013.0042

*Thompson, P., Hunston, S., Murakami, A., and Vajn, D. (2017). Multi-dimensional analysis, text constellations, and interdisciplinary discourse. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 22(2), 153–186. https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.22.2.01tho

White M. (1994). Language in job interviews: Differences relating to success and socio­economic variables. Ph.D. Dissertation. Northern Arizona University.

Zuppardi, M. C., and Berber Sardinha, T. (2020). A multi-dimensional view of collocations in academic writing. Advances in Corpus-based Research on Academic Writing: Effects of Discipline, Register, and Writer Expertise, 95, 333. https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.95.14zup

Published

2021-08-20

How to Cite

Goulart, L. ., & Wood, M. . (2021). Methodological synthesis of research using multi-dimensional analysis. Journal of Research Design and Statistics in Linguistics and Communication Science, 6(2), 107–137. https://doi.org/10.1558/jrds.18454

Issue

Section

Articles