Journal of Monolingual and Bilingual Speech <p><img src="/public/site/images/janet/JMBS-2631-8407-large_(2).jpg">&nbsp;This journal studies human speech in all its manifestations. The average person in today's world speaks at least one native language in its standard and/or dialectal forms and speaks at various levels of proficiency at least one more languge that is acquired simultaneously or consecutively in instructional or immersion settings. The term speech is used here to mean oral rather than written language and is an umbrella term to refer both to the physical aspects of the ability to speak/communicate as well as the cognitive aspects involved in the human linguistic faculty. Gestural (sign) language, i,e, the language of manual communication is known to display, by and large, the same fundamental properties as spoken language, and as such is a type of speech.</p> en-US <p>© Equinox Publishing Ltd.</p> <p>For information regarding our Open Access policy, <a title="Open access policy." href="Full%20details of our conditions related to copyright can be found by clicking here.">click here</a>.</p> (Elena Babatsouli, PhD) (Ailsa Parkin) Sat, 26 Sep 2020 16:25:18 +0000 OJS 60 Use of Monolingual English Guidelines to Assess Stuttering in Bilingual Speakers: <p>Speech-language pathologists can identify stuttering in multiple languages,<br />even if they do not speak the language. However, due to differences in language<br />development, multilingual speakers have been documented with higher<br />levels of typical disfluencies in their speech than monolingual speakers. These<br />higher levels of disfluency put multilingual speakers at greater risk of misdiagnosis as individuals who stutter, due to poor understanding of the nature of the manifestation of stuttering in two or more languages and reliance on monolingual-English diagnostic criteria. The purpose of the present systematic review is to explore how stuttering is identified in multilingual speakers who are described as participants who stutter, and whether monolingual English-speaking guidelines were the most commonly used reference for determining the presence of stuttering.</p> Courtney Byrd, Danielle Werle, Geoffrey A. Coalson, Kurt Eggers Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Sat, 26 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Literate and linguistic features of Chinese EFL learners’ narrative versus expository writing <p>This study evaluated the narrative and expository English writing corpus from 20 Chinese English learners at three linguistic levels: the use of literate words (elaborated noun phrases, conjunctions, adverbs, and mental state verbs), the degree of sentence complexity, and the use of subordinate clauses (nominal, adverbial and relative clauses). Results first showed a genre effect on literate word use but not on utterance length and clausal density. Specifically, there were more elaborated noun phrases and conjunctions in expository texts, but more adverbs in narrative texts. Results also revealed a genre effect on the use of relative clauses but not on other clauses. Finally, a strong correlation between literate word use and the production of complex syntax was found after controlling for the effects of genre. These results highlight the need for genre-dependent writing instruction to make students aware of the different language resources expected across genres as specific contexts of communication.</p> Xiangyu Jiang, Liang Chen, Qin Zhou Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Sat, 26 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Item-Based Acquisition of Dislocation in Early Child French <p>This study tests whether the usage-based concept of item-based schema can explain the development of constructions other than verb-argument constructions (VACs). Through a corpus study of 600 dislocations produced by two French children between age 1;7.12 and 2;5.11, and 600 from their input, we show that the concept of item-based schemas can indeed be extended to other types of constructions. We also show that the earliest item-based schemas produced by children are similar to specific syntactic featuress of dislocations in their input, and that the dislocations produced by the adults of our corpus can also be described in terms of item-based schemas. Based on these results, we make the hypothesis that the dislocations of adults may not necessarily be produced based on a more abstract construction, and that the radical exemplar model developed by Ambridge (2019) could also explain our data.</p> Morgane Jourdain, Emmanuelle Canut, Karen Lahousse Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Sat, 26 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Inter-sentential Code-switching and Language Dominance in Cantonese–English Bilingual Children <p>This paper examines the relationship between language dominance and the under-investigated topic of inter-sentential code-switching in Hong Kong Cantonese–English bilingual children. Longitudinal data for six children showing different dominance patterns were analysed. MLU differentials (Yip &amp; Matthews, 2006) were adopted to measure dominance based on five criteria: methodological compatibility, typological comparability, gradient measurement, variance validity, and multifaceted compatibility. Our results showed that bilingual children produced more inter-sentential code-switching in the context of their non-dominant language and less in their dominant-language context. We account for this asymmetry in relation to mechanisms of inhibitory control (Gross &amp; Kaushanskaya, 2015). Further, we propose that intrasentential and inter-sentential code-switching each have a different status in bilingual children’s developing grammar, underlining the methodological importance of separating the two constructs in future investigations. We also suggest that, in societies where intra-sentential code-switching is a social norm, inter-sentential code-switching could serve as signs of early bilinguals’ dominance status.</p> Chit Fung Lam, Stephen Matthews Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Sat, 26 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 L2 Perception and Production of Japanese Lexical Pitch <p>Adults are known to have difficulties acquiring suprasegmental speech that involves pitch (f0) in a second language (L2) (Graham &amp; Post, 2018; Hirata, 2015; Wang, Spence, Jongman &amp; Sereno, 1999; Wong &amp; Perrachione, 2007). Previous research has suggested that the perceived similarity between L1 and L2 phonology may influence how easily segmental speech is acquired, but this notion of ‘similarity’ may also apply to suprasegmental speech (So &amp; Best, 2010; Wu, Munro &amp; Wang, 2014). In this paper, the L2 acquisition of Japanese lexical pitch was assessed under a ‘Suprasegmental Similarity Account’, which is a theoretical framework inspired by previous models of segmental and suprasegmental speech (Best &amp; Tyler, 2007; Flege, 1995; Mennen, 2015) to account for the L2 acquisition of word prosody. Eight adult native speakers of Japanese and eight adult English-native advanced learners of Japanese participated in a perception and production study of Japanese lexical pitch patterns. Both groups performed similarly in perception, but non-native speakers performed significantly worse in production, particularly for ‘unaccented’ Low–High–High patterns. These findings are discussed in light of the ‘Suprasegmental Similarity Account’.</p> Tim Joris Laméris, Calbert Graham Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Sat, 26 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Iranian Persian <p>The present article proposes a sociolinguistic stance in the dissemination of information for use in the clinical context of speech language pathology (SLP) internationally. This practical guide to speech and culture aims to encourage the integration of linguistic and cultural facets in clinical practicum approaches, providing a useful and clinically relevant resource. This comes as a natural consequence of the systematic efforts worldwide to train and inform SLP workforces on providing equitable, targeted, and appropriate service to linguistically and culturally diverse clients such as minorities and immigrants. The specific focus of this guide is on Iranian Persian, a language and culture that is under-represented in published, clinically relevant literature. The paper provides an easily accessible reference manual on the phonological development and clinical assessment of Iranian Persian child speech in typical and atypical, monolingual and bilingual contexts, as well as on cultural aspects that may dictate the success of clinician and client/family interactions.</p> Narges Firouzshahi, Elena Babatsouli Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Sat, 26 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000