Journal of Monolingual and Bilingual Speech <p>This journal studies human speech in all its manifestations. The average person in today's world speaks at least one native language in its standard and/or dialectal forms and speaks at various levels of proficiency at least one more languge that is acquired simultaneously or consecutively in instructional or immersion settings. The term speech is used here to mean oral rather than written language and is an umbrella term to refer both to the physical aspects of the ability to speak/communicate as well as the cognitive aspects involved in the human linguistic faculty. Gestural (sign) language, i,e, the language of manual communication is known to display, by and large, the same fundamental properties as spoken language, and as such is a type of speech. <a href="">More about the journal.</a></p> Equinox Publishing Ltd. en-US Journal of Monolingual and Bilingual Speech 2631-8407 <p>© Equinox Publishing Ltd.</p> <p>For information regarding our Open Access policy, <a title="Open access policy." href="Full%20details of our conditions related to copyright can be found by clicking here.">click here</a>.</p> First person singular subject pronoun expression in Equatoguinean Spanish <p>The present study examines the linguistic and social factors that affect first person singular subject pronoun expression (SPE) in Equatoguinean Spanish. It also questions whether first person singular SPE in Equatoguinean Spanish supports or contradicts the tenets of the interface hypothesis. The data were analysed with the mixed effect software Rbrul. It consisted of transcriptions of audio recordings of 30 Equatoguinean participants in Malabo. The overt pronoun rate found in these data is 25.1%. The linguistic factors that also influence first person singular SPE are ambiguity, verb class and reference, whereas the social factors are education and speaker. Due to the low ranking of reference, the prediction of the interface hypothesis is supported in this study.</p> Lillie Padilla Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-12-10 2021-12-10 3 2 171–194 171–194 10.1558/jmbs.18453 Attitudes towards code-switching among young and middle-aged Kannada–English-speaking adults <p>Code-switching (CS) is a natural sociolinguistic phenomenon in bilingualism. This study investigated the attitudes of young and middle-aged Kannada–English-speaking adults towards CS. A total of 254 participants (143 young and 111 middle-aged) participated in this online survey. The survey included four components: demographic characteristics, proficiency, attitude and sentence acceptability task. Further, the study examined the relationship between age, proficiency, acceptability judgments and attitudes toward code-switching. Frequency analyses estimated the number and percentage of occurrences of the categorical variables. Chi-square test of association assessed the relationship between sociolinguistic variables such as age and language proficiency. Results revealed that participants generally had a positive attitude towards code-switching. The effects of age on attitudes towards CS are discussed. Overall, the study intended to draw insights regarding attitudes towards CS in India.</p> M. K. Niharika Suresh Suman S. Y. Aishwarya H. N. Gurkar Harshitha Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-12-10 2021-12-10 3 2 195–211 195–211 10.1558/jmbs.18542 Spanish-speaking parents’ experiences after English-only and Spanish-only interactions with their children <p>The purpose of this study is to explore L1 versus L2 (or English-only versus Spanish-only) language use during play activities with their children from the perspective of the immigrant parent. Nine primarily Spanish-speaking parents of typically developing children 12–46 months of age were interviewed after completing play activities with their children in English and in Spanish. To develop participant language proficiency profiles, descriptive data were collected and analysed using clinical language tools. Data on participants’ perceptions of language were collected using semi-structured interviewing and analysed using thematic analysis procedures. Participant–child forced language interaction data were collected during play activities and analysed using linguistic analysis software. One major theme (forced English as a barrier to authentic communication) and three subthemes (child did not understand parent, parent felt uncomfortable and code-switching) were found based on their experiences. The results from this study show that these Spanish-speaking parents who are learning English feel more comfortable speaking to their children in their native language. The lack of comfort and proficiency in English had a negative impact on parents’ language output in quality and quantity which has implications for the children’s overall language exposure. The information obtained from this study may be used to educate professionals working with Spanish-speaking parents that are learning a second language.</p> Maria Morales Alliete R. Alfano Angela M. Medina Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-12-10 2021-12-10 3 2 212–237 212–237 10.1558/jmbs.18804 Being in bilingual speech <p>In the present study, we investigated estar constructions in the Spanish/English code-switching variety of northern Belize, which is well known for its prolific use of hacer bilingual compound verbs in code-switched speech. To this end, we extracted and analysed 364 unilingual Spanish and 158 bilingual estar constructions from naturalistic speech in order (i) to examine the occurrence of estar with predicative adjectives, present participles, and past participles in both unilingual and code-switched discourse; and (ii) to determine how type of bilingualism (emergent versus dynamic) and frequency of use of hacer bilingual compound verbs, influence the naturalistic production of estar constructions. Results revealed that the production of estar with English predicative adjectives and English past participles was favoured in bilingual discourse. Importantly, the use of ‘estar + English past participle’ constructions was favoured by dynamic bilinguals who more frequently employed hacer ‘do’ bilingual compound verbs. Our findings highlight the important role that bilingual competence plays in the naturalistic production of congruent structures in code-switched speech. </p> Osmer Balam María del Carmen Parafita Couto Mia Amanda Chen Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-12-10 2021-12-10 3 2 238–264 238–264 10.1558/jmbs.19374 Reaction times to morphologically inflected nonwords <p>Previous work has shown that monolingual speakers of English are sensitive to the presence of inflectional morphology when it is applied to nonwords. For example, when a nonword ends in a sequence of phonemes that respect the morphophonological rules regulating tense inflection, speakers are slower in recognising it. In this study, we investigated whether a similar pattern applies to second language learners as well. 91 learners of English with Czech as L1 where presented with a same/different minimal pairs task containing nonwords with various endings (in one condition, a sequence of phonemes that could be interpreted as an inflectional morpheme). Consistently with research on monolingual participants, the study showed that also second language learners are slower in processing nonwords that contain potential inflectional morphemes. The pattern was observed from low levels of proficiency, suggesting that learners are sensitive to these rules from early stages of learning.</p> Luca Cilibrasi Lucie Jiránková Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-12-10 2021-12-10 3 2 265–289 265–289 10.1558/jmbs.19485