Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology <p><em>Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology</em> is the only journal currently published that deals with the entire multicultural world of Mediterranean archaeology. The journal publishes material that deals with, amongst others, the social, politicoeconomic and ideological aspects of local or regional production and development, and of social interaction and change in the Mediterranean. <a href="">Read more.</a></p> Equinox Publishing Ltd. en-US Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 0952-7648 <p>© Equinox Publishing Ltd.</p> <p>For information regarding our Open Access policy, <a title="Open access policy." href="Full%20details of our conditions related to copyright can be found by clicking here.">click here</a>.</p> Squatters’ Rights <p>Although ‘squatters’ have been identified in excavated contexts globally, it is unclear what this term actually means. In most archaeological publications, it seems to refer to the occupants of abandoned or destroyed buildings, especially those of the elite. ‘Squatting’, however, carries additional negative connotations which have been under-interrogated in the field. In this study, I explore the treatment of squatters in Anglophone archaeological writing, drawing upon two chronologically and geographically distinct examples: the Aegean Bronze Age and Late Roman North Africa. I argue that, in general, ‘squatters’ are identified uncritically and used as an index of cultural decline, with little consideration of the squatters—or reoccupants—themselves. Because ‘legitimacy’ of occupation is difficult to ascertain in archaeological contexts, I argue that this term is of little use in describing ancient reoccupation levels, particularly where they are distinguished only by their relative poverty. I suggest instead that an agency-centered assessment of impoverished architectural contexts is required.</p> Rebecca Worsham Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2022-01-20 2022-01-20 34 2 141 164 10.1558/jma.21978 Lifting the Lid <p>In this paper we investigate local foodways and ritual consumption in Iron Age Sicily through a study of cooking pots, integrating contextual, archaeozoological, archaeobotanical and chemical data. We focus on material from the central cult site of the settlement of Monte Iato, located in the hinterland of western Sicily, in order to explore the interaction between food, people, bio-/artefacts and environments as a process of formulating and reformulating social relationships and local power dynamics within specific social spaces and settings. We reveal different foodways and consumption practices within the same cult site, characterized on the one hand by long-standing traditions, with more or less constant and unchanging dishes, and on the other by the integration of external stimuli. We discuss the emergence of foreign- (Greek/Phoenician-) style cooking pots and ingredients as markers of an haute cuisine, developed with the aim of social differentiation.</p> Birgit Öhlinger Stephen Ludwig Gerhard Forstenpointner Ursula Thanheiser Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2022-01-20 2022-01-20 34 2 165 192 10.1558/jma.21979 Same Language, Different Diet <p>This study uses faunal and epigraphic evidence from the valley of Cabrera de Mar in present-day Catalonia (Spain) as proxies for understanding complex processes and dynamics of cultural change between the late Iron Age and early Roman times. The faunal remains indicate significant dietary change, although the epigraphic evidence implies that language—in contrast—changed at a slower pace, as shown by the use of indigenous onomastics and the continued use of the Iberian script, coin legends included. To ensure an interdisciplinary analysis, the study also discusses change as perceptible in architectural remains, ceramics and funerary practices. Our study shows that cultural change can take place at different levels and according to different rhythms, not only on regional and settlement planes but also at neighbourhood and household scales. Finally, our results highlight the value of archaeology as a tool for studying and understanding colonial encounters.</p> Alejandro G. Sinner Ariadna Nieto-Espinet Silvia Valenzuela-Lamas Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2022-01-20 2022-01-20 34 2 193 224 10.1558/jma.21977 Rural Settlement in Iron Age Cessetania (Northeastern Iberian Peninsula) <p>Recent research has demonstrated the importance of rural settlement in the Iberian culture, although there are still few rural sites explored in depth. ‘Rural settlement’ is the term we use to designate the small habitation sites or agricultural structures that became common from the Middle Iberian Period (450–200 bc) onward; such sites constituted the basis of a hierarchical settlement system characteristic of societies developing towards archaic states. These settlements consist of one or two buildings together with silos and/or artisanal features. The main difficulty in studying such sites is their poor preservation. They are usually located on flat areas suitable for cultivation, and research has traditionally prioritised the study of larger sites. In this study, we revise the data from previous investigations in the territory of ancient Iberian Cessetania and present the results of recent research, paying particular attention to the Rabassats site. We compare these rural settlements to those in other nearby territories in the Iberian area as well as in the wider Mediterranean context. Detailed analyses of the remains of rural sites show a greater complexity than is often assumed and suggest that a variety of small settlements, from an economic and probably also from a social point of view, should be included under the generic heading of ‘fourth order’.</p> Maria Carme Belarte Joan Canela Jordi Morer Oriol Cuscó Marc Ocaña Itxaso Euba Silvia Valenzuela-Lamas Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2022-01-20 2022-01-20 34 2 225 251 10.1558/jma.21980 Prehistoric Farming Settlements in Western Anatolia <p>Recovery of archaeobotanical assemblages from Late Chalcolithic Bakla Tepe and Liman Tepe in western Anatolia has provided the opportunity for in-depth analysis of agricultural strategies and the organisation of farming-related activity at the two sites. We find that Late Chalcolithic farmers utilised five major crop taxa, potentially including two mixed crops. The two sites also provide the first evidence for Spanish vetchling and winged vetchling cultivation in prehistoric Anatolia and the earliest evidence for this practice to date anywhere. We suggest that the settlements were organised into small, co-residential households that processed and stored their own crops, but we also propose that potentially communal extra-household storage and high levels of social monitoring may attest to supra-household cooperation. The later agricultural history of the vetchling species and the prevalence of extra-household storage at sites in coastal western Anatolia and the eastern Aegean islands add to evidence for a cultural koine between these regions in the fourth and third millennia bc. We also suggest that the large size of extra-household storage structures and the narrow range of crops cultivated at some Late Chalcolithic sites are consistent with the emergence of more extensive farming systems than those of earlier periods. Evidence for the use of extensive agricultural production to amass arable wealth by the citadel elites of later Early Bronze Age western Anatolia suggests that the agro-ecological foundations for emergent wealth inequality within the region were laid during the Late Chalcolithic. Testing this hypothesis through direct evidence for the nature of Late Chalcolithic farming systems is a key aim of ongoing research.</p> Tom Maltas Vasif Şahoğlu Hayat Erkanal† Rıza Tuncel Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2022-01-20 2022-01-20 34 2 252 277 10.1558/jma.21981