Journal of Language and Discrimination <p dir="ltr">The<em> Journal of Language and Discrimination</em> provides a multidisciplinary platform to broadcast important social issues, focusing on the close relationship between many forms of discrimination and social (in)equality and language. The journal publishes multidisciplinary yet inclusive research of a high scholarly standard, not published or under consideration elsewhere, and with a strong empirical component.</p> en-US <p>© Equinox Publishing Ltd.</p> <p>For information regarding our Open Access policy, <a title="Open access policy." href="">click here</a>.</p> (Massimiliano Demata and Natalia Knoblock) (Ailsa Parkin) Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Ethics, moral practices and age-related social issues in late 18th-century medical discourse <p>The second half of the eighteenth-century is particularly interesting for the study of medicine, and medical practice. The professional role of physicians, their social function, and their moral duties necessarily became a key issue for the period under scrutiny, and for decades to come. Medical ethics and moral practices, as well as philanthropic attitudes, constituted a relevant topic in medical writing: John Gregory (1724–73; Edinburgh University) and Thomas Percival (1740–1804; Manchester Infirmary) were the pioneers of medical ethics ‘in the making’. </p> <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the lexis of medical ethics and moral practices and its impact at textual and discourse levels. In other words, how the lexicalisation of values and principles shapes and frames the discourse on medical ethics, and on the social identity of target people-patients of all ages (old, young, middle-aged), as well as potentially age-related discriminatory practices between the 1770s and 1800s.</p> Elisabetta Lonati Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Old patients in mental health research <p>The present study takes a diachronic corpus-assisted discourse studies approach (Partington et al. 2013) to examine the representation of mentally-ill elderly patients in medical research articles, in the fields of psychology and psychiatry, published between 1950 and 2019. Despite evidence of the expanding scope of mental health research in more recent years, nihilistic views about mental health assessment and intervention underpin the discourse around mentally-ill older adults across the time span under consideration. In the literature, ageing is variously constructed as a process leading to deprivation, resignation and physical decay, increasing the chances of the onset of mental illnesses. The perpetuation of these discourses, which confirm and propagate discriminatory age-bias positioning on the part of medical researchers, specialists and the health community at large, may constitute a significant obstacle to an improvement in the quality of mental and physical health care provided for the older population, both currently, and without substantial intervention, for the foreseeable future. Overall, it is hoped that this article has not only made a valuable contribution to the understanding of ageing from a historical discourse analysis perspective, but may be of interest to mental health scholars and professionals alike inspiring them to question their knowledge and practices about and for older patients.</p> Laura Tommaso Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 How mental health professionals perceive old(er) adults <p>This multidisciplinary work mainly uses a discourse analytical approach (Fairclough 1995; Sarangi 2010a, 2010b) and fine tools (i.e., corpora and text analysis software, Baker 2010) in order to identify the possible presence of ageism (Butler 1969) from responses provided by psychologists who completed the Fraboni Scale of Ageism (Fraboni et al. 1990) used in the Italian validation (Donizzetti 2010) and further adapted to achieve the objective of this study. In fact, for each item (Tot=19) distributed along this 3-dimensional model (separation and avoidance; stereotypes and antilocution; affective attitudes and discrimination), 177 respondents were asked to express their (dis)agreement, not with numbers, as in the traditional scale, but with a text (D’Amico et al. 2020). With reference to the above-mentioned dimensions, some results unveiled the psychologists’ recurring belief system as follows: 38% of respondents believed that old people complain much more than other people, thus confirming their idea of a separate group from theirs; 35.7% thought that the elderly should be entrusted with the care of infants only when supervised, thus fitting the stereotype of the fixed age-identity category; and 80.6 % declared that they were unwilling to reciprocate if an old person initiated a conversation for external and/or context/personality-dependent reasons, thus justifying their discriminatory attitudes. Limited but not negligible results demonstrate a need for mental health education and training to be monitored in order to better understand the professionals’ belief system that emerges from their discourse on old age, because the reiteration of the same belief system, if cemented in social memory, has the strong effect of conferring an aura of objectivity to prevailing attitudes towards old(er) adults, and of inevitably affecting standard professional inter/actions with them. </p> Rosita Maglie, Ignazio Grattagliano Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Young generation and accessibility to health dissemination <p>Social media interactions represent an accessible way for young people to get health information and provide a form of public discourse about health. It is against this backdrop that experts and other health professionals have turned to digital platforms (e.g., TikTok) to share educational content about timely or touchy topics, and to spread awareness, specifically among younger users.</p> <p>This paper aims to explore these digital platforms where professionals provide health information that is specifically tailored for a young audience and attempts to explore the discursive negotiation of healthcare and health accessibility in digital social settings. In light of a social media critical discourse perspective, this study explores the creative shifts in the process of accommodating a product to a target audience and questions what meanings, in terms of accessibility and/or discrimination, these products carry for their audience.</p> Marianna Lya Zummo Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 #BoomerDoomer and #BoomerRemover <p>A chronological-age ‘risk group’ has been singled out since the onset of the current pandemic due to the higher risk of serious illness and mortality from COVID-19 closely associated with ‘older age’. While this categorisation does not presuppose discrimination in itself, it appears to be a precondition for discursive discrimination. COVID-19 age-related risks have particularly exacerbated ageism on social media, fuelling discourses driven by intergenerational tension. Despite the importance of social media in contemporary communication, there is still scant research on the representation of ageism in these environments. This paper attempts to fill this void by exploring millennials’ use of the derogatory Twitter hashtags #BoomerDoomer and #BoomerRemover to discriminate ‘baby boomers’ as the COVID-19 risk group. Informed by Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) showing interest in discriminatory discourse in the media, the study aims at disclosing the main themes and discursive strategies used to construe ageist content in a sample of original tweets posted during the initial stage of the disease outbreak when the hashtags were trending. Framed by a CDA taxonomy of discriminatory discursive strategies, the combined thematic and discourse analysis highlights how the chosen topics and discursive strategies subtly perpetuate ageism, thus suggesting its resurgence in the COVID-19 era.</p> Anna Franca Plastina Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 COVID-19 interactions that feature ageism <p>This study investigates how ageism is displayed among Japanese women in their mid-twenties when they talk about their experiences with COVID-19. Ageism, which is discrimination, stereotypes and prejudice based on people’s age, was reinforced by the outbreak of the disease. This study gathered data through virtual conversations recorded during the second wave of COVID-19 cases that hit Japan in August 2020. The conversation is examined using discourse analysis, focusing on how the participants position themselves and others through the narration of their personal experience. The analysis shows how participants co-construct the image of elderly people as others who are vulnerable to the virus but ignorant of their own risks. This image is created as the participants establish rapport-oriented interactions with friends that they align with as young and healthy citizens who are responsible for preventing the spread of the virus.</p> Mugiho Kojima Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A crisis within the crisis <p>This essay investigates the representation of children’s mental health in the UK press in the period immediately prior to the onset of and during the first 16 months of the Covid-19 pandemic, up to June 2021, during which, after the first wave of infections, a hard lockdown and a partial reopening, a resurgence of the virus after the summer months required the reintroduction of distancing measures, amid growing concerns for children and their mental health as a result of prolonged isolation. Based on a collection of articles from the British quality and tabloid press, the study takes a corpus-driven approach combined with discourse analysis, and identifies salient lexical features which not only provide an outline of the dominant concerns in children’s mental health discourse, but also of the way it was framed across the period considered. Prior to the pandemic, the ‘crisis’ frame dominated. The discourse of children’s mental health was characterised by alarm, urgency and a call for immediate action. In the first part of the pandemic, the crisis frame was hijacked by the pandemic itself. The dominant frame for the topic of children’s mental health was that of risk, which projected the concerns into an uncertain future. In the last period considered, the ‘risk’ frame was replaced by an ‘impact’ frame, which was characterised by greater control and less uncertainty. The findings suggest that, while the salience of children’s mental health in the press continued to be high, the frame shifts blunted the agenda-setting momentum which characterised the pre-pandemic period.</p> Paola Catenaccio Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Discriminaging. Discourses of health discrimination based on age Kim Grego, Alessandra Vicentini Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Multilingualism and Politics: Revisiting Multilingual Citizenship Edited by Katerina Strani (2020) <p>Multilingualism and Politics: Revisiting Multilingual Citizenship Edited by Katerina Strani (2020) London: Palgrave Macmillan, 365 pp.</p> Linda Sauer Bredvik Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 On the Offensive: Prejudice in Language Past and Present By Karen Stollznow (2020) <p>On the Offensive: Prejudice in Language Past and Present By Karen Stollznow (2020) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 316 pp.</p> Robert Maslen Copyright (c) 2022 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000