Journal of Language and Discrimination 2021-12-29T08:23:52+00:00 Massimiliano Demata and Natalia Knoblock Open Journal Systems <p dir="ltr">The<em> Journal of Language and Discrimination</em> provides a multidisciplinary platform to broadcast important social issues, focusing on the close relationship between many forms of discrimination and social (in)equality and language. The journal publishes multidisciplinary yet inclusive research of a high scholarly standard, not published or under consideration elsewhere, and with a strong empirical component.</p> Interview with Gordon Henry 2021-12-29T08:01:11+00:00 Lorena Carbonara <p>Gordon Henry is an enrolled member of the White Earth Anishinaabe Nation in Minnesota and professor of American Indian Literature, Creative Writing and the Creative Process in Integrative Arts and Humanities at Michigan State University. He is the author and co-editor of many books and collections, including The Failure of Certain Charms: And Other Disparate Signs of Life (2008). His novel The Light People (1994) won the American Book Award from the Before Columbus Foundation. Following some of the stages in his career and personal story, which he kindly accepted to share with me, this interview highlights some of the crucial key issues concerning Native American people and cultures, questions that still need a wider transnational space both inside and outside academia. Discrimination based on language has influenced the history of Native American people for centuries, starting from the forced education of the young in the 19th century and continuing in the 20th, in the context of Hollywood film productions. Linguicism, language-based racism (Phillipson 1992), is a topic that needs to be addressed in the light of the recent flourishing of extremist thought worldwide, which carries the abused rhetoric of ‘us vs them’ (van Dijk 2015) and, at the same time, spurs protest movements. This reflection goes hand-in-hand with the controversial topic of the appropriation of Native American cultural practices by old and new wannabes (non-people who are so much fascinated by Native American cultures that end up imitating them by, for example, choosing a Native name or emphasising certain aspects of the culture which they admire, often basing their beliefs on stereotypes), whilst people living in the Reservations are still neglected and the Native American and Alaskan Native population register extremely high suicide, homicide and alcoholism rates compared to the U.S. all races population (especially women). But, the efforts and educational programs aimed to preserve languages and cultures (like the Lakota Language Consortium or the Rosetta Stone Endangered Language programs), the vibrancy of the artistic scene in the visual, literary and music fields, the various forms of activism and community engagement projects (such as, for example, the MMIWG movement – Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls – the water protectors protest at Standing Rock, known as #NoDapl, or the prayerful journey called Run4Salmon in California) are also to be acknowledged as milestones in the process of regaining self-sovereignty by Native people. Against the background of these considerations, I am pleased and honoured to share thoughts, feelings and emotions with Gordon Henry. </p> 2021-11-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. ‘Norwegian-Somalis are best suited to inform Norwegian-Somalis’ 2021-12-29T08:23:52+00:00 Tatjana Radanović Felberg <p>The strategic contingency plans on all levels in Norway include references to possible needs for translating and adapting information flow into other languages. However, the situation at the grassroot level shows that these measures have not been considered an essential service. Valuable time passed during the first wave of COVID-19 until different public actors figured out their responsibilities and before the information was translated, adapted, and given, via appropriate media, to the beneficiaries. This article analyses actors and actions in eight online articles published by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation, NRK, focusing on crisis communication, and linguistic diversity in Norway during the initial period of the COVID-19 pandemic (March–June 2020). The analysis shows that the pandemic becomes a magnifying glass on the society uncovering social challenges like lack of trust in the authorities, stigmatization, and social inequality.</p> 2021-11-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. The neutering neuter – grammatical gender and the dehumanisation of women in German 2021-12-29T08:01:30+00:00 Damaris Nübling Miriam Lind <p>Grammatical gender in German has traditionally been described as a rather arbitrary system (Helbig and Buscha 1988). This is not the case in regard to terms of person reference, where natural gender assignment is the norm: Masculine and feminine grammatical gender largely correlate with the extralinguistic assignment of male and female gender. Neuter gender predominantly denotes inanimate entities (Köpcke and Zubin 1996, 2009). The use of neutral gender in reference to women nevertheless has a long history in German, usually with pejorative connotations (Köpcke and Zubin 1996, 2009). Historically, this can be illustrated in relation to nouns, pronouns and articles:</p> <p>1 By neuter nouns denoting ‘socially incomplete’ women, e.g. das Weib ‘woman (archaic), hag, n.’, das Luder ‘hussy, n.’ and in the increased use of neuter eliciting diminutives in reference to female individuals, e.g. das Mädchen ‘girl, n.’, das Fräulein ‘miss, n.’ (Nübling 2017).</p> <p>2 Through the use of neuter pronouns and neuter articles in combination with female names in a number of German dialects, e.g. das Emma, es ‘the (n.) Emma, it’ (Busley and Fritzinger 2018).</p> <p>In contemporary standard German, the use of neuter articles and pronouns instead of feminine ones seems to be used as a discursive tool to denigrate and dehumanise women whose gender performance does not conform with hegemonic concepts of femininity. This paper focuses on the intentional manipulation of grammatical gender in reference to women as a tool of degradation and dehumanisation and outlines the historical development of neuter forms of reference in contexts where feminine would be expected.</p> 2021-11-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. A testimonial injustice ‘out here in the projects’ – misrecognising victimhood in the bed intruder meme 2021-12-29T08:01:35+00:00 M’Balia Thomas <p>In the wake of ‘Black Lives Matter’, this paper examines the concept of testimonial injustice and the prejudicial stances held towards victims that diminishes the credibility of their claims and the social support they receive from the public. To explore this concept, the following work revisits the widely parodied U.S. originating broadcast news report, The Bed Intruder. In the broadcast, victims of a home invasion and attempted rape deliver a public call that outlines the conditions of their victimhood and the potential threat to the community. A rhetorical stylistic analysis of the victims’ testimonial discourse and a thematic analysis of a sample of YouTube videos that reappropriate and parody their discourse are conducted. The analyses highlight the memetic elements of the video parodies that acknowledge the victimisation and yet strategically misconstrue events in ways that 1) render the victims and their claims less credible and 2) fail to provide them with the moral concern such an acknowledgement deserves.</p> 2021-11-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Sorry, not sorry 2021-12-29T08:01:27+00:00 Gabriella Licata <p>Right-wing populism emboldens its members to publicly challenge those they find threatening to white conservative frameworks, e.g. progressive female politicians of colour. I critically analyse how Republican Ted Yoho uses discursive agency to deliver infelicitous statements in response to the diatribe he directed at Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez in July 2020. Guided by the principles of citationality (Derrida 1988), I utilise image repair theory (Benoit 1997) to reveal how Yoho minimises the alleged offences he committed by redirecting his rant at policy, not person. This allows Yoho to issue non-apologies and – in line with right-wing populism – villainize Ocasio-Cortez and elevate himself and his party. Both Democrats and Republicans deemed Yoho’s apology ‘appropriate’, resulting in unfavourable perlocutionary effects for female politicians of colour. The dismissal of Yoho’s offences highlights the normalisation of violent language directed at women of colour, revealing how white supremacy and toxic masculinity are normalised aspects of US media ecology.</p> 2021-11-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Standard language ideology in an English-medium Irish secondary school 2021-12-29T08:01:21+00:00 Stephen Lucek <p>The current paper aims to address how one English-medium school functions from the different perspectives within the school: the principal, student/teacher classroom interaction and the students. This approach allows us to see the power differential of the different stakeholders in a school and how iconisation, fractal recursivity, and erasure affect teenagers in Dublin. This paper presents interview data with a principal and the students in a secondary school. Taking a qualitative approach to these data, I show that standard language ideology is linked with economic disadvantage. The school principal’s approach to identifying, problematising and seeking to eliminate certain types of nonstandard language in the school reflects a standard language ideology and is consistent with a raciolinguistic approach to linguistic discrimination. The data suggest that the students themselves take a more nuanced approach.</p> 2021-11-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Homing in on HATE: Critical Discourse Studies of Hate Speech, Discrimination and Inequality in the Digital Age Edited by G. Balirano and B. Hughes (2020) 2021-12-29T08:01:18+00:00 Mirko A. Demasi <p>Homing in on HATE: Critical Discourse Studies of Hate Speech, Discrimination and Inequality in the Digital Age Edited by G. Balirano and B. Hughes (2020) Napoli, Italy: Paolo Loffredo Editore srl, 267 pp.</p> 2021-11-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Linguistic Discrimination in U.S. Higher Education: Power, Prejudice, Impacts and Remedies By G. Clements and M. J. Petray (2021) 2021-12-29T08:01:24+00:00 Weijia Shan Zhenjun Lin <p>Linguistic Discrimination in U.S. Higher Education: Power, Prejudice, Impacts and Remedies By G. Clements and M. J. Petray (2021) New York: Routledge, 224 pp.</p> 2021-11-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Transgender Identities in the Press: A Corpus-based Discourse Analysis By A. Zottola (2020) 2021-12-29T08:01:15+00:00 Fabienne H. Baider <p>Transgender Identities in the Press: A Corpus-based Discourse Analysis By A. Zottola (2020) London: Bloomsbury, 210 pp.</p> 2021-11-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Editorial 2021-12-29T08:01:07+00:00 Massimiliano Demata Natalia Knoblock 2021-11-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd.