Implicit and explicit corrective feedback and feedback exposure conditions


  • Takehiro Iizuka University of Maryland
  • Kimi Nakatsukasa Texas Tech University



corrective feedback, implicit/explicit corrective feedback, implicit/explicit knowledge, direct/indirect recipients of feedback, Japanese


This exploratory study examined the impact of implicit and explicit oral corrective feedback (CF) on the development of implicit and explicit knowledge of Japanese locative particles (activity de, movement ni and location ni) for those who directly received CF and those who observed CF in the classroom. Thirty-six college students in a beginning Japanese language course received either recast (implicit), metalinguistic (explicit) or no feedback during an information-gap picture description activity, and completed a timed picture description test (implicit knowledge) and an untimed grammaticality judgement test (explicit knowledge) in a pre-test, immediate post-test and delayed post-test. The results showed that overall there was no significant difference between CF types, and that CF benefited direct and indirect recipients similarly. Potential factors that might influence the effectiveness of CF, such as instructional settings, complexity of target structures and pedagogy styles, are discussed.


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Author Biographies

Takehiro Iizuka, University of Maryland

Takehiro Iizuka is a PhD student in the Second Language Acquisition program at the University of Maryland. His research interests include instructed SLA, implicit and explicit knowledge, and cognitive individual differences.

Kimi Nakatsukasa, Texas Tech University

Kimi Nakatsukasa, who tragically passed away in 2019, was an Assistant Professor of Applied Linguistics and Second Language Studies at Texas Tech University. Her research interests included the analysis of gestures and second language development, classroom interaction, and interaction between linguistic and non-linguistic (e.g. music) abilities.


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How to Cite

Iizuka, T., & Nakatsukasa, K. (2020). Implicit and explicit corrective feedback and feedback exposure conditions. Instructed Second Language Acquisition, 4(1), 3–48.