A Phoney Holy War

Reflections on the Myth of Spiritual Revolution

Authors

  • William J. F. Keenan Independent Writer and Researcher

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1558/imre.v19i1.30015

Keywords:

implicit religion, Ideology-critique, Postmodernity, Secular Myth, Spiritual Revolution, Subjectivization

Abstract

This article provides an ideology-critique of the just-so story of “the spiritual turn,” aiming at the ahistorical and mythopoeic illusions of this contemporary fable as embedded in the fashionable nostrum, “the spiritual revolution.” This faux dramatic expression purports to describe a “turn” away from the external authority of “religion” in favour of self-chosen “spirituality” as the locus of faith commitment in the late modern world. Nine fundamental fallacies are identified with this contemporary secular myth. The “revolutionary” separation of “religiosity” and “spirituality” is untenable as scientific judgement. A more nuanced and constructive intellectual framework for engaging with the radical coinherence of the religious and the spiritual, I suggest, is “implicit religion.”    

Author Biography

William J. F. Keenan, Independent Writer and Researcher

Visiting Professor of Sociology of Religion and Culture, Liverpool Hope University, Liverpool

References

Ahern, Geoffrey. 2009. Sun at Midnight: the Rudolf Steiner Movement and Gnosis in the West. London: James Clark.

Allport, Gordon W. and J. Michael Ross. 1967. “Personal Religious Orientation and Prejudice.” Journal of Personality Research and Social Psychology 5(4): 432–443. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0021212

Andersen, Peter B., Peter Gundelach and Peter Lüchau. 2013. “A Spiritual Revolution in Denmark?” Journal of Contemporary Religion 28(3): 385–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13537903.2013.831646

Archer, Margaret S. 1988. Culture and Agency: The Place of Culture in Social Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Arweck, Elisabeth and William J. F. Keenan. Eds. 2006. Materializing Religion: Expression, Performance and Ritual. Aldershot, Hants: Ashgate, in Association with the British Sociological Association Sociology of Religion Study Group.

Bailey, Edward I. 1995. “Let’s Listen to the Natives.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 34(3): 391–392. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1386888

Bailey, Edward I. 1997. Implicit Religion in Contemporary Society. Kampen, Netherlands: Kok Pharos.

———. 1998a. “‘Implicit Religion’”: What Might That Be?” Implicit Religion 1(1): 9–22.

———. 1998b. Implicit Religion: An Introduction. London: Middlesex University Press.

———. 2000. “The Sacred, the Holy, and the Human as Tripartite Symbols of Ultimate Reality and Meaning.” Ultimate Reality and Meaning 23(3).

———. 2001. The Secular Faith Controversy: Religion in Three Dimensions. London and New York: Continuum.

———. 2012. “‘Implicit Religion’: What Might That Be?” Implicit Religion 15(2): 195–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/imre.v15.i2.15481

Bataille, Georges. 1985 [1929]. “The ‘Old Mole’ and the Prefix Sur in the Words of Surhomme (Superman) and Surrealist.” In Georges Bataille: Visions of Excess. Selected Writings,1927–1939, edited by Allan Stoekle, 32–44. Minneapolis, MI: University of Minnesota Press.

Bellah, Robert N., Richard Marsden, William M. Sullivan, Ann Swidler and Steven M. Tipton. 1985. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.

Bender, Courtney. 2010. The New Metaphysicals: Spirituality and the American Religious Imagination. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226043173.001.0001

Bender Courtney and Omar McRoberts. 2012. “Mapping the Field: Why and How to Study Spirituality.” Social Science Research Council Working Papers. Brooklyn, New York: SSRC. http://religion.ssrc.org/reforum/Bender.pdf (accessed 22 April 2015).

Borg Ter, Meerten. 2004. “Some Ideas on Wild Religion.” Implicit Religion 7(2): 108–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/imre.7.2.108.56071

Bowen, Jonathan and Rachel Wagner. 2006. “Hokey Religions and Ancient Weapons: The Force of Spirituality.” In Finding the Force of the Star Wars Franchise: Fans, Merchandise and Critics, edited by Matthew W. Kapell and John Shelton Lawrence, 75–93. New York: Peter Lang.

Brown, Bréne. 2015. Rising Strong. New York: Random House.

Bruce, Steve. 2014. “Authority and Freedom: Rational Choice and the Death of Religion.” In Religions as Brands, edited by Jean-Claude Usumier and Jörg Stolz, 191–204. Aldershot, Hants: Ashgate.

Brummer, Alex. 2015. Bad Banks: Greed, Incompetence and the Real Global Crisis. New York: Random House.

Bullivant, Stephen and Lois Lee. 2012. “Interdisciplinary Studies of Non-religion and Secularity: The State of the Union.” Journal of Contemporary Religion 27(1): 19–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13537903.2012.642707

Butterfield, Herbert. 1965 [1931]. The Whig Interpretation of History. New York: W.W. Norton.

Carrette, Jeremy and King, Richard. 2005. Selling Spirituality: The Silent Takeover of Religion. London and New York: Routledge.

Chadwick, Owen. 1975. The Secularization of the European Mind in the Nineteenth-Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cleaver, Eldridge. 1968. Soul on Ice. New York: Cape.

Coleman III, Thomas J., Christopher F. Silver and Ralph W. Hood Jr. 2016. “‘If the Universe is Beautiful, We’re Part of that Beauty.’ A ‘Neither Religious Nor Spiritual’ Biography as Horizontal Transcendence.” In Semantics and Psychology of Spirituality: A Cross-Cultural Analysis, Chapter 22, edited by Heinz Streib and Ralph W. Hood Jr. Switzerland: Springer.

Colorado, Carlos D. and Justin D. Klassen, eds. 2014. Aspiring to Fullness in a Secular Age: Essays on Religion and Theology in the Work of Charles Taylor. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

Comte-Sponville, André. 2008. The Book of Atheist Spirituality: An Elegant Argument for Spirituality Without God. Translated by Nancy Huston. London: Bantam Books.

Cowling, Maurice. 1980. Religion and Public Doctrine in Modern England. Volume 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511558429

Cropsey, Joseph. ed., 1964. Ancients and Moderns: Essays on the Tradition of Political Philosophy in Honor of Leo Strauss. New York: Basic Books.

Davie, Grace. 1996. “Religion and Modernity: The Work of Danièle Hervieu-Léger.” In Postmodernity, Sociology and Religion, edited by Kieran Flanagan and Peter C. Jupp, 101–117. London: Macmillan.

———. 2000. Religion in Modern Europe: A Memory Mutates. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

———. 2015. Religion in Britain: A Persistent Paradox. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.

Day, Abby. 2011. Believing and Belonging: Belief and Social Identity in the Modern World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577873.001.0001

de Coulanges, Fustel. 1980 [1864]. The Ancient City: A Study of the Religion, Laws and Institutions of Greece and Rome. New York: John Hopkins University Press.

DeJean, Joan. 1997. Ancients against Moderns: Culture Wars and the Making of a Fin de Siècle. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Dennett, Daniel C. 2006. Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon. New York and London: Penguin.

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. 1996 [1868/9]. The Idiot. London: Wordsworth Classics.

Downs, Alan. 1997. Beyond the Looking-Glass: Overcoming the Seductive Cultures of Corporate Capitalism. New York: Diane Publishing.

Duffy, Eamon. 1992. The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England, 1400–1580. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Dupré, Wilhelm. 1975. Religion in Primitive Cultures: A Study in Ethnophilosophy. New York: Walter De Gruyter. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110870053

Durkheim, Émile. 1965 [1912]. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. Translated by J. W. Swain. New York: Free Press.

———. 2013 [1895]. The Rules of Sociological Method and Selected Texts on Sociology and its Method. Edited by Steven Lukes. London: PalgraveMacmillan.

Elias, Norbert.1971. “Sociology of Knowledge: New Perspectives.” Sociology 5: 149 and 355–370.

Evans-Pritchard, Edward Evan. 1956. Nuer Religion. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

———. 1965. Theories of Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fenn, Richard K. 2001. “David Martin’s Sociology of Hope.” In Restoring the Image: Essays on Religion and Society in Honour of David Martin, edited by Andrew Walker and Martyn Percy, 125–137. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

Feyerabend, Paul. 1975. Against Method: Outline of an Anarchist Theory of Knowledge. London: New Left Books.

Fiorina, Morris P. 2005. Culture War? The Myth of Polarized America. New York: Longman.

Flanagan, Kieran. 2007. “Introduction.” In A Sociology of Spirituality, edited by Kieran Flanagan and Peter C. Jupp, 1–21. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate.

Foucault, Michel. 1988. Power/Knowledge: Selected Interview and Other Writings, 1972–1977. New York: Random House.

Francis, Leslie. 1980. “Measurement and Muddle.” Paper delivered at Third Denton Conference on Implicit Religion, Denton Hall, Ilkley, Yorkshire, England.

Fuller, Robert C. 2001. Spiritual, but not Religious: Understanding Unchurched America. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0195146808.001.0001

Gadamer, Hans-Georg. 1989. Truth and Method (2nd rev. ed., 1st English ed., 1975). Translated by J. Weinsheimer and D. G. Marshall. New York: Crossroad.

Gellner, Ernest. 1964. Thought and Change. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Giddens, Anthony. 1984. The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.

González, George. 2015. “The Ritualization of Consumer Capitalism. Catherine Bell’s Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice in the Age of Starbucks.” Implicit Religion 18(1): 3–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/imre.v18i1.21761

Gouldner, Alvin W. 1971. The Coming Crisis of Western Sociology. New York: Heinemann.

Grainger, Roger. 2014. “Implicit Soulfulness: A Dramatic Perspective.” Implicit Religion 17(1): 3–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/imre.v17i1.3

Guest, Mathew. 2007. “In Search of Cultural Capital: The Spiritual as a Cultural Resource.” In A Sociology of Spirituality, edited by Kieran Flanagan and Peter C. Jupp, 181–200. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate.

Geertz, Clifford. 1973. “Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture.” In The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays, 3–30. New York: Basic Books.

Gushurst-Moore, Andre. 2013. Christian Humanism and the Common Mind: Politics, Society and Christian Humanism from Thomas More to Russell Kirk. Tacoma, WA: Angelico Press.

Habermas, Jürgen. 2008. “Secularism’s Crisis of Faith: Notes on Post-Secular Society.” New Perspectives Quarterly 25: 17–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5842.2008.01017.x

Harris, Sam. 2004. The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Religion. New York: W. W. Norton.

Heelas, Paul. 2007. “The Holistic Milieu and Spirituality: Reflections on Voas and Bruce.” In A Sociology of Spirituality, edited by Kieran Flanagan and Peter C. Jupp, 63–80. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate.

Heelas, Paul L. F. and Linda J.P. Woodhead. “The Kendal Project: Testing the ‘Spiritual Revolution’ Thesis.” Sociology Review 13(2): 18–21.

Heelas, Paul L., Linda Woodhead, Benjamin Seel, Bronislaw Szerszynski, and Karen Tusting. 2005. The Spiritual Revolution: Why Religion is Giving Way to Spirituality. Oxford: Blackwell.

Helminiak, Daniel A. 1996. “A Scientific Spirituality: The Interface of Psychology and Religion.” The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 6: 1–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327582ijpr0601_1

Hense, Elisabeth, Frans Jespers and Peter Nissen, eds. 2014. Present-Day Spiritualities: Contrasts and Overlaps. Leiden: Brill.

Hervieu-Léger, Danielle. 2000. Religion as a Chain of Memory. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Hill, Peter C., Kenneth L. Pargament, Ralph W. Hood Jr., Michael E. Mc Cullough, James O. Swyers, David B. Larson and Brian J. Zinnbauer. 2000. “Conceptualizing Religion and Spirituality: Points of Commonality, Points of Departure.” Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 30(1): 51–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-5914.00119

Hitchens, Christopher. 2007. God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything. New York: Twelve Books.

Hobsbawm, Eric J. 1959. Primitive Rebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Manchester. Manchester University Press.

Hofstadter, Richard J. 1996. The Paranoid Style of American Politics: And Other Essays. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Howes, Graham. 2006. The Art of the Sacred: An Introduction to the Aesthetics of Art and Belief. London and New York: I. B. Taurus.

Hunter, James Davison. 1991. Culture Wars: The Struggle to Define America. New York: Basic Books.

Huss, Boaz. 2014. “Spirituality: The Emergence of a New Cultural Category and its Challenge to the Religious and the Secular.” Journal of Contemporary Religion 29(1): 47–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13537903.2014.864803

Iverleigh, Austen. 2014. The Great Reformer: Francis and the Making of a Radical Pope. New York: Henry Holt.

Jenkins, Timothy. 2006. An Experiment in Providence: How Faith Engages the World. London: SPCK.

Jenks, Christopher. 1998. Core Sociological Dichotomies. London: Sage.

Kapuscinski, Afton N. and Kevin S. Masters. 2010. “The Current Status of Measurements of Spirituality: A Critical Review of Scale Development.” Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 2(4): 191–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0020498

Kavolis, Vytotas. 1988. “Contemporary Moral Cultures and ‘The Return of the Sacred’.” Sociological Analysis 49(3): 203–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3711585

Keenan, William J. F. 2002a. “Post-Secular Sociology: Effusions of Religion in Late Modern Settings.” European Journal of Social Theory 5(2): 279–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13684310222225450

———. 2002b. “Twenty-First-Century Monasticism and Religious Life: Just Another New Millennium.” Religion 32: 13–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/reli.2002.0395

———. 2003. “Rediscovering the Theological in Sociology: Foundation and Possibilities.” Theory, Culture & Society 20(1): 19–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263276403020001919

———. 2009. “Divinity and Power in Minute Particulars: Politics and Panentheism in the Implicit Religion of Marist Socks.” Implicit Religion 12(2): 201–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/imre.v12i2.201

———. 2014. “Believing, Belonging, Begatting: The Implicit Sapiential Faith of Academia.” Implicit Religion 17(1): 11–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/imre.v17i1.11

———. 2015a. ‘Recycling Religion: Lance Armstrong’s Postmodern Spirituality of Suffering and Survivorship.’ Journal of Contemporary Religion 30(1): 107–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13537903.2015.986981

———. 2015b. “Granulated Faith-Holding: Examples from the Vocation of Science (Max Weber, Edward Shils, David Martin).” Implicit Religion 18(3): 279–346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/imre.v18i3.28053

———. 2016. “The Sacramental Thought-World of Implicit Religion.” Implicit Religion 19(1): 11–47.

Keenan, William J. F. and Schnell, Tatjana. 2011. “The Resilient Academy: A Transdisciplinary Critique of the Realworldist University.” In Resilience and Unemployment, edited by Åsmund Aamaas, William J. F. Keenan, Clemens Sedmak and Linda van der Zijden, 19–42. Wien-Münster: Lit Verlag.

King, Christine. 2012. “The Enduring Problem of Dualism: Christianity and Sports.” Implicit Religion 15(2): 225–241.

King, Mike. 2011. “Mapping Spirituality in the Twenty-first Century.” Journal for the Study of Spirituality 1(1): 35–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/jss.v1i1.35

King, Ursula. 2009. The Search for Spirituality: Our Global Quest for Meaning and Fulfilment. Norwich: Canterbury Press.

Krok, Dariusz. 2015. “Striving for Significance: The Relationships Between Religiousness, Spirituality and Meaning in Life.” Implicit Religion 18(2): 233–257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/imre.v18i2.20446

Kuhn, Thomas S. 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Lakatos, Imre. 1976. Proofs and Refutations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139171472

Lasch, Christopher. 1979. The Cult of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations. New York. W. W. Norton.

Lazarsfeld, Paul F. and Robert K. Merton. 1948. “Mass Communication, Popular Taste, and Organized Social Action.” In The Communication of Ideas, edited by Lyman Bryson, 95–118. New York: Harper.

Lee, Lois. 2012. “Research Note: Talking about a Revolution: Terminology for the New Field of Non-religion Studies.” Journal of Contemporary Religion 27(1): 129–139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13537903.2012.642742

Le Roy, Ladurie, Emmanuel. 2002 [1975]. Montaillou: Cathars and Catholics in a French Village 1294–1324. Translated by Barbara Bray. London: Penguin.

Lovejoy, Arthur O. 1960 [1936]. The Great Chain of Being: A Study of the History of an Idea. New York: Harper.

Lynch, Gordon. 2007. The New Spirituality: An Introduction to Progressive Belief in the Twenty-first Century. London and New York: I. B. Tauris.

Lyotard, Jean-Francois.1984. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Macpherson, Crawford Brough. 1962. The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mannheim, Karl. 1960. Ideology and Utopia. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Marsden, George M. and Bradley J. Longfield, eds. 1992. The Secularisation of the Academy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Martin, Bernice. 2006. “The Aesthetics of Latin American Pentecostalism: The Sociology of Religion and the Problem of Taste.” In Materializing Religion: Expression, Performance and Ritual, edited by Elisabeth Arweck and William J. F. Keenan, 138–160. Aldershot, Hants: Ashgate.

Martin, David. 1965. “Towards Eliminating the Concept of Secularization from the Vocabulary of Sociology.” Penguin Journal of the Social Sciences 1965, edited by Julius Gould, 185–197. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

———. 2005. On Secularization: A Revised General Theory. Aldershot, Hants: Ashgate.

———. 2006. “The Sociology of Religion and Handel’s Reception.” In Materializing Religion: Expression, Performance and Ritual, edited by Elisabeth Arweck and William J. F. Keenan, 161–174. Aldershot: Ashgate.

———. 2014. Religion and Power: No Logos without Mythos. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate.

———. 2015. “Sociology and Theology: With and Against the Grain of ‘the World’.” Implicit Religion 18(2): 159–175.

Marx, Karl. 1963 [1851]. The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon. New York: International Publishers.

———. 1970 [1843]. Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, edited by Joseph O’Malley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Marx Karl and Friedrich Engels. 2004 [1848]. The Communist Manifesto. London: Penguin.

McCormick, Debra. 2006. “From Jesus Christ to Jedi Knight: Validity and Viability of New Religious Movements in Late Modernity.” Paper presented at Social Change in the 21st Century Conference, Queensland University of Technology. 26 October 2006. http://eprints.qut.edu.au. Accessed 19 April 2015.

McGuire, Meredith M. 2008a. “Toward a Sociology of Spirituality: Individual Religion in Social/Historical Context.” In The Centrality of Religion in Social Life, edited by Eileen Barker, 215–232. Aldershot, Surrey: Ashgate.

———. 2008b. Lived Religion: Faith and Practice in Everyday Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172621.001.0001

Mercadante, Linda A. 2014. Beliefs Without Borders: Inside the Minds of the Spiritual but not Religious. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199931002.001.0001

Miller, Timothy. 1999. The 60’s Communes: Hippies and Beyond. New York: Syracuse University Press.

Mills, C. Wright. 1959. The Sociological Imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mooney, Chris. 2010. “Spirituality Can Bridge the Science-Religion Divide.” USA Today 30. 9th December. http//:usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/.../2010-09-13-column13_ST_N.htm [accessed 17 April 2015].

Musgrove, Frank. 1974. Ecstasy and Holiness: Counter Culture and the Open Society. London: Methuen.

Nietzsche, Friedrich. 2008 [1872]. The Birth of Tragedy. Translated by Douglas Smith. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nisbet, Robert A. 1966. The Sociological Tradition. New York: Basic Books.

Oliver, Paul. 2014. Hinduism and the 1960’s: The Rise of a Counter-culture. London: Bloomsbury.

Oppenheimer, Mark. 2003. Knocking on Heaven’s Door: American Religion in the Age of Counterculture. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Pin, Émile. 1965. Apostolic Religious Institutes and Socio-Cultural Change. Rome: Gregorian Press.

Polanyi, Michael. 1967. The Tacit Dimension. New York: Anchor Books.

Polner, Murray and Jim O’Grady. 1997. Disarmed and Dangerous: The Radical Lives and Times of Daniel and Philip Berrigan. New York: Basic Books.

Popper, Karl R. 1957. The Poverty of Historicism. London: Routledge.

———. 1972. Objective Knowledge: An Evolutionary Approach. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

———. 1985. Realism and the Aim of Science. London: Routledge.

Porter, Jennifer. 2006. “‘I am a Jedi’: Star Wars Fandom, Religious Belief, and the 2001 Census.” In Finding the Force of the Star Wars Franchise: Fans, Merchandise and Critics, edited by Matthew W. Kapell and John Shelton Lawrence, 95–112. New York: Peter Lang.

Putnam, Robert. 2001. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Putnam, Robert, Lewis Felstein and Donald Cohen. 2005. Better Together: Restoring the American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Reavis, Dick J. 1998. The Ashes of Waco: An Investigation. New York: Syracuse University Press.

Resnik, David B. 2000. “A Pragmatic Approach to the Demarcation Problem.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Part A 31(2): 249–267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0039-3681(00)00004-2

Rojek, Chris. 1986. “Problems of Involvement and Detachment in the Writings of Norbert Elias.” British Journal of Sociology 37(4): 584–596. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/590719

Rorty, Richard. 1979. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Russell, Bertrand. 1926. The Danger of Creed Wars. London: The Fabian Society.

Sagan, Carl. 1995. The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark. New York: Random House.

Saltman, Roy G. 2012. Sacred Human: Responding to the New Atheists. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Schlehofer, Michele M., Allen M. Omoto and Janice R. Adelman. 2008. “How Do ‘Religion’ and ‘Spirituality’ differ? Lay definitions Among Older Adults.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 47(3): 411–425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5906.2008.00418.x

Schnell, Tatjana. 2003. “A Framework for the Study of Implicit Religion: The Psychological Theory of Implicit Religiosity.” Implicit Religion 6(2): 86–104.

———. 2010. “Existential Indifference: Another Quality of Meaning in Life.” Journal of Humanistic Psychology 50(3): 351–373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022167809360259

———. 2011. “Experiential Validity: Psychological Approaches to the Sacred.” Implicit Religion 14(4): 387–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/imre.v14i4.387

———. 2012a. “Spirituality With and Without Religion: Differential Relationships with Personality.” Archive for the Psychology of Religion 34: 1–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157361212X644495

———. 2012b. “On Method: A Foundation for Empirical Research on Implicit Religion.” Implicit Religion 15(4): 407–422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/imre.v15i4.407

———. 2014. “Dimensions of Secularity (DoS): An Open Inventory to Measure Facets of Secular Identities.” International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. Author version posted online 02 Oct. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157361211X564611

Schnell, Tatjana and William J.F. Keenan. 2011. “Meaning-Making in an Atheist World.” Archive for the Psychology of Religion 33(1): 55–78.

———. 2013. “The Construction of Atheist Spirituality: A Survey-Based Study.” In Constructs of Meaning and Religious Transformation, edited by Herman Westerink, 101–118. Vienna: Vienna University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.14220/9783737000994.101

Selvan, Sahaya G. 2013. “Towards Religious-Spirituality.” Journal for the Study of Religion and Ideology 12(36): 129–152.

Selvanayagam, Israel. 2005. “Editorial: The Quest for Spirituality in the Secular Multi-faith Context of India.” Implicit Religion 8(2): 101–117.

Sennett, Richard. 2006. The Culture of the New Capitalism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Shapiro, James. 2005. 1599: A Year in the Life of William Shakespeare. London: Faber and Faber.

Shaw, Joseph M., R. W. Franklin, Harris Kaasa and Charles W. Buzicky, eds. 2009. Readings in Christian Humanism. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress Press.

Sheldrake, Phillip. 1992. Spirituality and History: Questions of Interpretation and Method. New York: Crossroads.

Shils, Edward. 1981. Tradition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

———. 2006. A Fragment of a Sociological Autobiography: The History of My Pursuit of a Few Ideas. Edited by Steven Grosby. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

Shipley, Peter. 1977. Trotskyism: Entryism and Political Revolution. London: Institute for the Study of Conflict.

Simons, Herbert and Michael Billig, eds. 1994. After Postmodernism: Reconstructing Ideology Critique. London: Sage.

Singer, Christopher F. 2003. “The Relation between Religious Knowledge and Dogmatism in College Students.” Modern Psychology Studies Journal 9: 26–35.

Solomon, Robert C. 2002. Spirituality for the Skeptic: The Thoughtful Love of Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0195134672.001.0001

Sorel, Georges. 2005 [1908]. Reflections on Violence. London: Dover Books.

Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn. 1903 [1844]. The Life of Thomas Arnold, D.D. London: Hutchinson.

Stanley, Jason. 2015. How Propaganda Works. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9781400865802

Stark, Rodney and William S. Bainbridge. 1987. A Theory of Religion. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Steiner, George. 1989. Real Presences: Is There Anything in what We Say? London: Faber and Faber.

Streib, Heinz and Ralph W. Hood. 2011. “‘Spirituality’ as Privatized Experience-Oriented Religion: Empirical and Conceptual Perspectives.” Implicit Religion 14(4): 433–453. http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/imre.v14i4.433

Sutcliffe, Steven J. and Ingvild Sælid Gilhus, eds. 2013. New Age Spirituality: Rethinking Religion. Durham and Bristol, CT: Acumen.

Taylor, Charles. 1989. Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tremlett, Paul-François. 2012. “Occupying Territory at the Interstices of the Sacred: Between Capitalism and Community.” Religion and Society 3: 30–41.

Turcan, Robert. 2001. The Gods of Ancient Rome: Religion in Everyday Life from Archaic to Imperial Times. Abingdon: Taylor Francis.

Usunier, Jean Claude and Jörge D. Stolz. 2014. Religions as Brands: New Perspectives on the Marketization of Religion and Spirituality. Farnham, Surrey and Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Van Ness, Peter. 1996. Spirituality and the Secular Quest. New York: Crossroads.

Varron, Jeremy Peter. 2004. Bringing the War Home: The Weather Underground, the Red Army Faction, and Revolutionary Violence in the Sixties and Seventies. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Versluis, Arthur. 2014. American Gurus: From American Transcendentalism to New Age Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199368136.001.0001

Voas, David and Steve Bruce. 2007. “The Spiritual Revolution: Another False Dawn for the Sacred.” In A Sociology of Spirituality, edited by Kieran Flanagan and Peter C. Jupp, 43–61. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate.

von Stuckrad, Kocku. 2014. The Scientification of Religion: An Historical Study of Discursive Change, 1800–2000. Berlin: Walter de Gruyer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9781614513490

Waschenfelder, Jacob. 2011. “The World Suffices: Spiritualities without a Supernatural.” Journal for the Study of Spirituality 1(1): 171–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/jss.v1i2.171

Welch, David. 2013. Propaganda: Power and Persuasion. From the First World War to Wikileaks. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Weber, Max. 1949. “The Meaning of ‘Ethical Neutrality’ in Sociology and Economics.” In Max Weber: The Methodology of the Social Sciences, edited by E. Shils and H. Finch, 1–47. New York: Macmillan.

———. 1958 [1908]. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Translated by Talcott Parsons. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

———. 1991 [1922]. “Science as a Vocation.” In From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, edited by Hans Gerth and C. W. Mills, 129–156. London: Taylor and Francis.

Wernick, Andrew. 2000. Auguste Comte and the Religion of Humanity: The Post-Theistic Program of French Social Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Williams, Rowan. 2008. Dostoevsky: Language, Faith and Fiction. London: Continuum.

Wood, Matthew. 2010. “The Sociology of Spirituality: Reflections on a Problematic Endeavour.” In The New Blackwell Companion to the Sociology of Religion, edited by Brian S. Turner, 267–285. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444320787.ch12

Woodhead, Linda. 2010. “Real Religion and Fuzzy Spirituality? Taking Sides in the Sociology of Religion.” In Religions of Modernity: Relocating the Sacred to the Self and the Digital, edited by Stef Aupers and Dick Houtman, 31–48. Leiden: Brill. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004184510.i-273.13

Wouters, Cas. 1986. “The Formalization of Informalization: Changing Tension Balances in Civilizing Processes.” Theory, Culture & Society 3(2): 1–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263276486003002002

Wright, Terence R. 1986. The Religion of Humanity: The Impact of Comtean Positivism on Victorian Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wuthnow, Robert. 2001. Creative Spirituality. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Yeatman, Robert Julian and Walter Carruthers Sellars. 2010 [1930]. 1066 and All That: A Memorable History of England. London: Methuen.

Young, Lawrence A. 1997. Rational Choice Theory and Religion: Summary and Assessment. Abingdon, Oxon: Psychology Press.

Zinnbauer, Brian J., Kenneth Pargament, Brenda Cole, Mark Rye, Eric Butter, Timothy Belavich, Kathleen Hipp, Arlie Scott and Jill Kadar. 1997. “Religion and Spirituality: Unfuzzying the Fuzzy.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 36: 549–564. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1387689

Ziolkowski, Theodore. 2008. Modes of Faith: Secular Surrogates for Lost Religious Faith. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.

Downloads

Published

2016-03-02

How to Cite

Keenan, W. J. F. (2016). A Phoney Holy War: Reflections on the Myth of Spiritual Revolution. Implicit Religion, 19(1), 131–198. https://doi.org/10.1558/imre.v19i1.30015

Section

Articles