The Trials and Tribulations of Luke Skywalker

How The Walt Disney Co. and Lucasfilm Have Failed to Confront Joseph Campbell’s Troublesome Legacy

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1558/imre.43229

Keywords:

Joseph Campbell, comparative religion, conspirituality, Lucasfilm, monomyth, Star Wars

Abstract

The present contribution offers some critical reflections on the influence of Comparative Religion scholar Joseph Campbell’s (1904- 1987) monomyth, or hero’s journey, on George Lucas’ Star Wars space opera. Like other celebrated 20th-century scholars of religion, after his death Campbell was revealed as an ultraconservative racist intellectual. However, Campbell had already been turned into a liberal icon thanks to Lucas’ own sponsorship and active support at least since 1983. After a recap of the recent history of Lucasfilm Ltd. and a brief discussion about the intersection of canon, fandom, and authority in Star Wars, the present article provides a preliminary answer to this puzzling relationship by contextualising Lucas’ own fascination with Campbell’s work within the larger post-war percolation of camouflaged radical-right ideas and authors, especially religious scholars, through Western democratic societies. The article contends that Lucas and new Lucasfilm owner The Walt Disney Co. have so far failed to confront Campbell’s problematic legacy and examines three main options to tackle this moral issue.

Author Biography

Leonardo Ambasciano, Journal of Cognitive Historiography

Leonardo Ambasciano earned his Ph.D. in Historical Studies at the University of Turin, Italy, in 2014, with a cognitive and evolutionary analysis of the ancient Roman female cult of Bona Dea. In 2016, he was Visiting Lecturer in Religious Studies at Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
Since 2014, he has been involved in the Editorial Board of the Journal of Cognitive Historiography, where he started as Editorial Assistant. He currently serves as Managing Editor and keeps working at the crossroad between history, social sciences, and the natural sciences.
Leonardo is the author of An Unnatural History of Religion: Academia, Post-Truth, and the Quest for Scientific Knowledge (Bloomsbury, 2019), and of various articles, book reviews, and chapters, including “History as a Canceled Problem? Hilbert’s List, du Bois-Reymond’s Enigmas, and the Scientific Study of Religion”, co-authored with T. J. Coleman, III and published in the Journal of the American Academy of Religion 87(2): 366-400.

References

Albert, M. 1996. 'Science, Post-Modernism and the Left.' Z Magazine 7-8: 64- 69. https://doi.org/10.2307/2691404

Ambasciano, L. 2014. Sciamanesimo senza sciamanesimo. Le radici intellettuali del modello sciamanico di Mircea Eliade: evoluzionismo, psicoanalisi, te(le)ologia. Rome: Nuova Cultura.

---. 2018a. "Politics of Nostalgia, Logical Fallacies, and Cognitive Biases: The Importance of Epistemology in the Age of Cognitive Historiography." In Evolution, Cognition, and the History of Religion: A New Synthesis, edited by A. K. Petersen, G. I. Sælid, L. H. Martin, J. S. Jensen, and J. Sørensen, 280-296. Leiden and Boston: Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004385375_019

---. 2018b. "Mircea Eliade, Michael Jackson, and the Normalization of Psychopathology." Implicit Religion 21(4): 3-12. https://doi.org/10.1558/imre.40100

---. 2019. An Unnatural History of Religions: Academia, Post-truth and the Quest for Scientific Knowledge. London: Bloomsbury. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350062412

---. 2021. "An Evolutionary Cognitive Approach to Comparative Fascist Studies: Hypermasculinization, Supernormal Stimuli, and Conspirational Beliefs." Evolutionary Studies in Imaginative Culture 5(1): 23-40. https://doi.org/10.26613/esic.5.1.208

Asprem, E. and A. Dyrendal. 2015. "Conspirituality Reconsidered: How Surprising and How New Is the Confluence of Spirituality and Conspiracy Theory?" Journal of Contemporary Religion 30(3): 367-382. https://doi.org/10.1080/13537903.2015.1081339

Beckwith, R. T. 2017. "George Lucas Wrote 'Star Wars' as a Liberal Warning. Then Conservatives Struck Back." Time. 10 October. https://time.com/4975813/star-wars-politics-watergate-george-lucas/

Bennett, A. 2019. "Key Disney Parks Executive Exits Amid Lackluster Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge Attendance." Deadline. 23 September. https://deadline.com/2019/09/key-disney-parks-executive-exits-amid-lackluster-star-wars-galaxys-edge-attendance-1202743079/

Bernstein, R. 1989. "After Death, a Writer Is Accused of Anti-Semitism." The New York Times, 6 Nov. https://www.nytimes.com/1989/11/06/arts/after-death-a-writer-is-accused-of-anti-semitism.html

Bond, P. 2019. "Disney Earnings Disappoint Despite Hefty Studio Performance." The Hollywood Reporter. 6 August. https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/disney-earnings-disappoint-hefty-studio-performance-1229777

Boyd, B. 2009. On the Origin of Stories: Evolution, Cognition, and Fiction. Cambridge, MA: Belknap. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvjf9xvk

Brooker, W. 2016 [2009]. Star Wars. London: BFI/Palgrave.

Campbell, J. 2004 [1949]. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Commemorative Edition with an Introduction by Clarissa Pinkola Estés. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Campbell, J. and B. Moyers. 1988. The Power of Myth. New York: Doubleday.

Carney, J., R. Dunbar, A. Machin, T. Dávid-Barrett, and M. Silva Júnior. 2014. "Social Psychology and the Comic-Book Superhero: A Darwinian Approach." Philosophy and Literature 38(1A): A195-A215. https://doi.org/10.1353/phl.2014.0019

Castaneda, C. 1968. The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Charles, M. B. 2015. "Remembering and Restoring the Republic: 'Star Wars' and Rome." The Classical World 108(2): 281-298. https://doi.org/10.1353/clw.2015.0014

Child, B. 2016. "George Lucas Apologises for Describing Disney as 'White Slavers'." The Guardian. 1 January. https://www.theguardian.com/film/2016/jan/01/george-lucas-apologises-for-describing-disney-as-white-slavers

---. 2017. "Why Does Star Wars Keep Losing Its Directors?" The Guardian, 11 September. https://www.theguardian.com/film/2017/sep/11/star-wars-lose-directors-trevorrow-lucasfilm

---. 2020. "Bye Bye Box Office: Has Disney Really Given Up on Star Wars Movies?" The Guardian. 5 February. https://www.theguardian.com/film/2020/feb/05/disney-star-wars-break-films-tv-spin-offs-the-mandalorian

---. 2021. "Racist Trolls May Think They Own Star Wars, But the Saga's Diversity Issues Are Not Cut and Dried." The Guardian. 5 March. https://www.theguardian.com/film/2021/mar/05/star-wars-racism-trolls-kelly-marie-tran

Cusack, C. M. 2010. Invented Religions: Imagination, Fiction and Faith. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Davidsen, M. A. 2016a. "Fiction and Religion: How Narratives about the Supernatural Inspire Religious Belief." Religion 46(4): 489-499. https://doi.org/10.1080/0048721X.2016.1226756

Davidsen, M. A. 2016b. "The Religious Affordance of Fiction: A Semiotic Approach." Religion 46(4): 521-549. https://doi.org/10.1080/0048721X.2016.1210392

de Bruin-Mole, M. 2018. "Space Bitches, Witches, and Kick-Ass Princesses: Star Wars and Popular Feminism." In Star Wars and the History of Transmedia Storytelling, edited by S. Guynes and D. Hassler-Forest, 225-240. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt207g5dd.20

Derrida, J. 1994. Force de loi. Paris: Galilée.

---. 1997 [1994]. Politics of Friendship. London: Verso.

Derrida, J. and M. Ferraris. 2001 [1997]. A Taste for the Secret. Cambridge: Polity.

Desta, Y. 2017. "Last Jedi Director Rian Johnson Fires Back at Star Wars 'Manbabies'." Vanity Fair, 6 June. https://www.vanityfair.com/hollywood/2018/06/rian-johnson-response-kelly-marie-tran-instagram

Desta, Y. 2020. "John Boyega Gets Real About Star Wars and Racism: 'It Changes You'." Vanity Fair. 2 September. https://www.vanityfair.com/hollywood/2020/09/john-boyega-star-wars-racism-interview

Di Cesare, D. 2017. Heidegger and the Jews: The Black Notebooks. Cambridge: Polity.

Duncan, P. 2020. The Star Wars Archives: Episodes IV-VI 1977-1983. Köln: Taschen.

Ellwood, R. S. 1999. The Politics of Myth: A Study of C. G. Jung, Mircea Eliade, and Joseph Campbell. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Eribon, D. 1992. Faut-il brûler Dumézil? Mythologie, science et politique. Paris: Flammarion.

Ferraris, M. 2006. Jackie Derrida. Ritratto a memoria. Turin: Bollati Boringhieri.

---. 2014 [2012]. Manifesto of New Realism, trans. S. De Sanctis. Albany: State University of New York Press.

---. 2015. Introduction to New Realism, trans. S. De Sanctis. London: Bloomsbury.

Friedman, M. 1998. "Why Joseph Campbell's Psychologizing of Myth Precludes the Holocaust as Touchstone of Reality." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 66(2): 385-401. https://doi.org/10.1093/jaarel/66.2.385

Gallese, V. and M. Guerra. 2012. "Embodying Movies: Embodied Simulation and Film Studies." Cinema: Journal of Philosophy and the Moving Image 3: 183-210.

Gentile, J. S. 2007. "The Scholar as Mystic: The Poetic Mysticism of Joseph Campbell." Storytelling, Self, Society 3(3): 195-204. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41948989

Geraghty, L. 2005. "Creating and Comparing Myth in Twentieth-Century Science Fiction: 'Star Trek' and 'Star Wars'." Literature/Film Quarterly 33(3): 191-200. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43797228

Gill, B. 1989. "The Faces of Joseph Campbell." The New York Review of Books, 28 September. https://www.nybooks.com/articles/1989/09/28/the-faces-of-joseph-campbell/

Ginzburg, C. 2010. "Mircea Eliade's Ambivalent Legacy." In Hermeneutics, Politics, and the History of Religions: The Contested Legacies of Joachim Wach and Mircea Eliade, edited by C. K. Wedemeyer and W. Doniger, 307-323. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press

Gordon, A. 1978. "Star Wars: A Myth for Our Time." Literature/Film Quarterly 6(4): 314-326. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43795691

Gottschall, J. 2012. The Storytelling Animal: How Stories Make Us Human. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Gould, S. J. 1994. "So Near and Yet So Far." The New York Review of Books 46(20): 24-28.

Griffin, R. 2018. Fascism: An Introduction to Comparative Fascist Studies. Cambridge: Polity.

Griffiths, J. 2015. "Chinese State Media Hits Back at Claims of Racist Star Wars poster." CNN, 9 December. https://edition.cnn.com/2015/12/08/asia/star-wars-china-racist-poster/index.html

Hadas, L. 2017. "New Vision: J. J. Abrams, 'Star Trek', and Promotional Authorship." Cinema Journal 56(2): 46-66. https://doi.org/10.1353/cj.2017.0002

Harrison, R. 2020. The Empire Strikes Back. London: BFI/Bloomsbury.

Hiatt, B. 2019. "Lucasfilm's Kathleen Kennedy on 'Rise of Skywalker' and the Future of 'Star Wars'." Rolling Stone. 19 November. https://www.rollingstone.com/movies/movie-news/lucasfilm-president-kathleen-kennedy-interview-rise-skywalker-future-star-wars-912393/

Hogan, P. C. 2003. The Mind and Its Stories: Narrative Universals and Human Emotion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511499951

Holland, L. 2018. "Why Are (Some) Star Wars Fans So Toxic?" The Guardian. 7 June. https://www.theguardian.com/film/2018/jun/07/kelly-marie-tran-rose-why-are-some-star-wars-fans-so-toxic

Holt, N. 2017. "The Women Who Run the 'Star Wars' Universe." The New York Times. 22 December. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/22/movies/star-wars-last-jedi-women-run-universe.html

Howe, A. 2012. "Star Wars in Black and White: Race and Racism in a Galaxy Not So Far Away." In Sex, Politics, and Religion in Star Wars: An Anthology, edited by D. Brode and L. Deyneka, 11-24. Lanham, MA and Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow.

Hufbauer, B. 2015. "The Politics Behind the Original 'Star Wars'." The Los Angeles Review of Books. 21 December. https://lareviewofbooks.org/article/politics-behind-original-star-wars/

Iger, B. 2019. The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company. New York: Random House.

James, M. 2017. "He Believed in 'Power Rangers' When Nobody Else Did, and It Turned Him Into a Billionaire." Los Angeles Times. 19 March. https://www.latimes.com/business/hollywood/la-fi-ct-haim-saban-power-rangers-20170319-story.html

Jensen, J. S. 2014. What Is Religion? Abingdon: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315729466

Jesi, Furio. 2011 [1979]. Cultura di destra. Con tre inediti e un'intervista. Edited by Andrea Cavalletti. Rome: nottetempo.

Jones, B. J. 2016. George Lucas: A Life. London: Headline.

Konner, J., H. Smith, R. Finch, C. Wallace Orr, R. H. Markman et al. 1989. "Joseph Campbell: An Exchange." The New York Review of Books. 9 November. https://www.nybooks.com/articles/1989/11/09/joseph-campbell-an-exchange/

Krupat, A. 1989. "Joseph Campbell Mixed Bigotry and Inspiration; His Anti-Semitism." The New York Times. 2 December. https://www.nytimes.com/1989/12/02/opinion/l-joseph-campbell-mixed-bigotry-and-inspiration-his-anti-semetism-660789.html

Lawrence, J. S. and R. J. Jewett. 2002. The Myth of the American Superhero. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

Lefkowitz, M. R. 1990. "The Myth of Joseph Campbell." The American Scholar 59(3): 429-434. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41211815

Lee, C. 2018. "Why Did Solo: A Star Wars Story Bomb at the Box Office?" Vulture. 29 May. https://www.vulture.com/2018/05/why-did-solo-a-star-wars-story-bomb-at-the-box-office.html

Lucas, G., and C. Rose. 2012. "George Lucas: Billionaire Down on Capitalism." CBS News. 21 January. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/george-lucas-billionaire-down-on-capitalism/

Lucasfilm. 2018. "Rebels Recon #4.7: Inside 'Wolves and a Door' and 'A World Between Worlds' | Star Wars Rebels." Star Wars. 26 February. https://youtu.be/_XGJd_g1zDA

Lyden, J. C. 2012. "Whose Film Is It, Anyway? Canonicity and Authority in 'Star Wars' Fandom." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 80(3): 775-786. https://doi.org/10.1093/jaarel/lfs037

MacGuire, W. 1988. "Obituary Notice: Joseph Campbell." Journal of Analytical Psychology 33: 187-190. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-5922.1988.00187.x

MacWilliams, M. W. 2005. "Campbell, Joseph." In Encyclopedia of Religion. Second Edition, edited by L. Jones, vol. 3, 1377-1380. Detroit: Thomson Gale-MacMillan.

Mar, R. A., J. L. Tackett, and C. Moore. 2010. "Exposure to Media and Theory-of-mind Development in Preschoolers." Cognitive Development 25(1): 69-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2009.11.002

McCleary, R. M., ed. 2011. The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195390049.001.0001

Mendelson, S. 2020a. "'Star Wars' Box Office: Disney's Sequels Were Almost as Profitable As George Lucas' Prequels Trilogy." Forbes. 20 May. https://www.forbes.com/sites/scottmendelson/2020/05/20/star-wars-box-office-disney-jj-abrams-profits-fox-george-lucas/

Mendelson, S. 2020b. "Box Office: 'Star Wars: Rise of Skywalker' Is the First $1 Billion Disappointment." Forbes. 12 January. https://www.forbes.com/sites/scottmendelson/2020/01/12/box-office-star-wars-rise-of-skywalker-is-the-first-1-billion-disappointment/

Metz, W. 2006. "Hollywood Cinema." In The Cambridge Companion to Modern American Culture, edited by C. Bigsby, 374-391. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CCOL0521841321.019

Miller, M. 2019. "J. J. Abrams Opens Up about Finishing The Rise of Skywalker and What He Really Thinks of Baby Yoda." Esquire. 25 November. https://www.esquire.com/entertainment/movies/a29960539/jj-abrams-star-wars-the-rise-of-skywalker-interview-toxic-fandom-knights-of-ren-baby-yoda/

Mitkidis, P. and G. Levy. 2015. "False Advertising: The Attractiveness of Religion as a Moral Brand." In The Attraction of Religion: A New Evolutionary Psychology of Religion, edited by D. J. Slone and J. A. Van Slyke, 159-167. London: Bloomsbury.

Murdock, M. 1990. The Heroine's Journey: Woman's Quest for Wholeness. Boulder, CO: Shambhala.

Nicholson, S. 2011. "The Problem of Woman as Hero in the Work of Joseph Campbell." Feminist Theology 19(2): 182-193. https://doi.org/10.1177/0966735010384331

Page, T. 2015. "'Star Wars: The Force Awakens': What the Critics Say." CNN, December 22. https://edition.cnn.com/2015/12/16/entertainment/force-awakens-critics-reviews-roundup/index.html

Petersen, A. K. 2016. "The Difference Between Religious Narratives and Fictional Literature: A Matter of Degree Only." Religion 46(4): 500-520. https://doi.org/10.1080/0048721X.2016.1221670

Possamai, A. (2011). "Gramsci, Jediism, the Standardization of Popular Religion and the State." In Religion and the State: A Comparative Sociology, edited by J.Barbalet, A. Possamai and B. S. Turner, 245-262. London: Anthem. https://doi.org/10.7135/UPO9780857288073.012

Raftery, B. 2011. "How Dan Harmon Drives Himself Crazy Making Community." Wired. 22 September. https://web.archive.org/web/20170323180511/ https://www.wired.com/2011/09/mf_harmon/all/

Reagan, A. J., L. Mitchell, D. Kiley, C. M. Danforth, and P. S. Dodds. 2016. "The Emotional Arcs of Stories Are Dominated by Six Basic Shapes." EPJ Data Science 5(31). https://doi.org/10.1140/epjds/s13688-016-0093-1

Reagin, N. R. and J. Liedl, eds. 2013. Star Wars and History. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Rensma, R. 2009. The Innateness of Myth: A New Interpretation of Joseph Campbell's Reception of C. G. Jung. London: Continuum.

Rinzler, J. W. 2007. The Making of Star Wars: The Definitive Story Behind the Original Film. New York: Ballantine.

Rizzolatti, G. and C. Sinigaglia. 2008. Mirrors in The Brain: How Our Minds Share Actions and Emotions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Robertson, D. G. 2021. Gnosticism and the History of Religions. London: Bloomsbury.

Sandler, F. and D. Reeck. 1981. "The Masks of Joseph Campbell." Religion 11(1): 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-721X(81)80057-7

Schoenl, W. and L. Schoenl. 2016. "Joseph Campbell's Unpublished Views of Jung." Jung Journal 10(4): 24-29. https://doi.org/10.1080/19342039.2016.1225246

Schwartz, L. J. 2006. "Building Brick." Brick 2-Disc Autobahn Steelbook DVD Behind the Scenes documentary. https://vimeo.com/48348608

Segal, R. A. 1987. "Joseph Campbell's Theory of Myth." The San Francisco Jung Institute Library Journal 7(4): 5-12. https://doi.org/10.1525/jung.1.1987.7.4.5

---. 1990. "The Romantic Appeal of Joseph Campbell." Christian Century 4(April): 332-335.

---. 1992. "Joseph Campbell on Jews and Judaism." Religion 22(2): 151-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-721X(92)90056-A

---. 1997. Joseph Campbell: An Introduction. New York: Garland.

---. 1999. "Joseph Campbell as Antisemite and as Theorist of Myth: A Response to Maurice Friedman." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 67(2): 461-467. https://doi.org/10.1093/jaarel/67.2.461

---. 2015. Myth: A Very Short Introduction. Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sidky, H. 2021. Religion, Supernaturalism, the Paranormal and Pseudoscience: An Anthropological Critique. Lanham, MA: Lexington.

Smith, D., P. Schlaepfer, K. Major, M. Dyble, A. E. Page, J. Thompson, N. Chaudhary, G. D. Salali, R. Mace, L. Astete, M. Ngales, L. Vinicius, and A. Bamberg Migliano. 2017. "Cooperation and the Evolution of Hunter-gatherer Storytelling." Nature Communications 8(1853). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-02036-8

Sokal, A. 2010 [2008]. Beyond the Hoax: Science, Philosophy and Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Storr, W. 2019. The Science of Storytelling. London: William Collins.

Szalai, G. and P. Bond. 2019. "Disney Closes $71.3 Billion Fox Deal, Creating Global Content Powerhouse." The Hollywood Reporter. 19 March. https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/general-news/disney-closes-fox-deal-creating-global-content-powerhouse-1174498/

Taylor, C. 2014. How Star Wars Conquered the Universe. London: Head of Zeus.

Valinsky, J. 2020. "Abigail Disney on Disney Furloughs: 'What the Actual F--- ?'" CNN Business. 23 July. https://edition.cnn.com/2020/04/22/business/abigail-disney-furloughs-bonus-pay-coronavirus-trnd/index.html

VanDerWerff, E. 2017. "The 'Backlash' against Star Wars: The Last Jedi, Explained." Vox. 19 December. https://www.vox.com/culture/2017/12/18/16791844/star-wars-last-jedi-backlash-controversy

Vary, A. B. 2020. "How a Lucasfilm Exec's Tweet Reopened the Wounds of 'The Last Jedi'." Variety. 29 December. https://variety.com/2020/tv/news/star-wars-theory-pablo-hidalgo-luke-skywalker-1234875850/#!

Vogler, S. 2020. The Writer's Journey - 25th Anniversary Edition: Mythic Structure for Writers. Studio City, CA: Michael Wiese.

Ward, C. and D. Voas. 2011. "The Emergence of Conspirituality." Journal of Contemporary Religion 26(1): 103-121. https://doi.org/10.1080/13537903.2011.539846

Wasserstrom, S. M. 1999. Religion After Religion: Gershom Scholem, Mircea Eliade, and Henry Corbin at Eranos. Princeton: Princeton University Press. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400823178

Warzel, C. 2019. "How an Online Mob Created a Playbook for a Culture War." The New York Times. 15 August. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/08/15/opinion/what-is-gamergate.html

Wetmore, K. J. 2000. "The Tao of 'Star Wars', Or, Cultural Appropriation in a Galaxy Far, Far Away." Studies in Popular Culture 23(1): 91-106. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23414569

Yuhas, A. 2020. "Why 'Star Wars' Keeps Bombing in China." The New York Times. 14 January. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/14/movies/star-wars-china.html

Zito, S. 1977. "George Lucas Goes Far Out." American Film April: 13.

Zorrilla, M. M. 2021. "TV Ratings: 'The Mandalorian' Finally Beats Michael Scott and Co. in Nielsen's Streaming Top 10." Variety. 14 January. https://variety.com/2021/tv/lists/tv-ratings-the-mandalorian-finally-beats-michael-scott-and-co-in-nielsens-streaming-top-10-1234885734

Published

2021-07-20

How to Cite

Ambasciano, L. (2021). The Trials and Tribulations of Luke Skywalker: How The Walt Disney Co. and Lucasfilm Have Failed to Confront Joseph Campbell’s Troublesome Legacy. Implicit Religion, 23(3), 251–276. https://doi.org/10.1558/imre.43229

Issue

Section

Articles