Forensic Archaeology, Anthropology and Ecology <div><em>Forensic Archaeology, Anthropology and Ecology (</em>formerly <em>Archaeological and Environmental Forensic Science</em>) is a journal that specialises in the inter-relationship between forensic anthropology, forensic archaeology and environmental forensic science in terms of research and forensic practice. <a href="">Read more about the journal</a></div> Equinox Publishing Ltd. en-US Forensic Archaeology, Anthropology and Ecology 2052-3378 <p>© Equinox Publishing Ltd.</p> <p>For information regarding our Open Access policy, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">click here</a>.</p> Identifying and Evaluating Atypical Traits in Ancient Egyptian Glass Vessels attributed to the New Kingdom using Raw Data Analysis and Expert Assessment <p style="line-height: 11.75pt; margin: 0cm 0cm 8.0pt 0cm;">The descriptive data pertaining to the remaining, largely intact, glass vessels produced in ancient Egypt between the reigns of Tuthmosis IV (1401–1391 BCE) and Pinudjem II (959–945 BCE) contained in Die Glasgefäße im Alten Ägypten [The Glass Vessels in Ancient Egypt], was extracted and standardized to create a dataset that could be analysed to determine the most typical and atypical features of vessels attributed to the New Kingdom in the corpus. Seven descriptive categories were assessed based on the percentage of incidence to determine if a vessel could be defined as statistically “atypical.” An expert’s evaluation was employed as a second assessment method. The two methods identified 76 vessels from a total number of 320 vessels and agreed on 16 vessels considered as atypical, all of which had little or no provenance information. The resulting 76 vessels identified as “atypical” by the combined methods were subsequently compared with the respective provenance information and current location to determine patterns of collection and distribution throughout the world. The data showed that the Americas held the largest number of vessels that had little or no provenance data, including those held in private collections. The combined atypical tests identified that the Americas hold the largest proportion of atypical vessels. It is not the intention of this research to undermine the authenticity of vessels but to determine if data methods can be used to identify atypical traits in archaeological collections and to encourage the application of archaeometric testing to provide supporting information on statistically rare objects.</p> Victoria Kemp Rhiannon Rohan Andrew Shortland Copyright (c) 2020 © Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-05-23 2021-05-23 2 1 1–17 1–17 10.1558/aefs.17950 Towards an Integrated Approach to Recording Military Aircraft Crash Sites <p>The forensic investigation of military aircraft crash sites has become in recent times part of mainstream traditional archaeology. Mostly amateur aircraft enthusiasts have undertaken the recovery of military aircraft crash sites without methodically recording the remains. The sites covered in this paper have been approached based on recording the in-situ remains methodically using traditional and scientific methods used in the field of archaeology from fieldwalking, metal detecting and geophysics. The strategy and methodology used in this investigation showed how effective and important it is to recover as much of the remains as possible to place it into a meaningful context in order to understand the reasoning for why these aircraft came to a devasting end by crashing into the ground at great speed. The excavations have involved Operation Nightingale—an MOD based recovery programme that specializes in archaeology. This paper will demonstrate the importance of using such an integrated approach to the recovery of military aircraft crash sites from the Second World War by referring to specific case studies.</p> Peter Masters Richard Osgood Copyright (c) 2020 © Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-05-23 2021-05-23 2 1 19–38 19–38 10.1558/aefs.18050 Disposal of a Homicide Victim by Dismemberment and Burning <p>Burning can have a profound effect on the appearance of bone and increase its susceptibility to mechanical damage. In criminal cases where there has been a deliberate attempt to dispose of human remains in this way; there is also often a need to distinguish between damage caused by heat, ante-mortem and peri-mortem trauma, and post-mortem damage. This case demonstrates how the forensic anthropologist and archaeologist contributed to a complex investigation where a homicide victim had been dismembered, burned and concealed. The use of archaeological and anthropological techniques at the scene, in the mortuary and the laboratory, provided evidence that enabled the sequence of events surrounding the disposal of the deceased to be reconstructed. The expert witness testimony given in court showed the benefits of employing these skills and assisted in securing the conviction of the offenders who are both serving life sentences.</p> Julie Roberts Alison Baldry Copyright (c) 2020 © Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-05-23 2021-05-23 2 1 39–48 39–48 10.1558/aefs.18070 Late Stage Decomposition of Embalmed Cadavers <p>Decomposition is a natural process that begins approximately four minutes after death and continues until the body is degraded to simpler biochemical components which are gradually recycled back to the environment. This process is dependent on extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Embalming is a chemical preservation technique that aims to preserve the external appearance of the body in good condition for an indeterminate period. In Spain, there is a lack of experimental studies carried out to analyse the variables that affect decomposition in embalmed bodies, therefore, in accordance with the conclusions reached by previous authors, it is hypothesised that embalmed bodies show quantifiable characteristics during the late stage decomposition which distinguish them from control, unembalmed, cadavers. An anthropological and statistical analysis was performed on 14 individuals from Cementerio Sur de Madrid exhumed after ten years according to the Mortuary Health Law of the Autonomous Region of Madrid. The preliminary results obtained showed that there is a qualitative and statistically significant relationship between the variables evaluated, being the presence or absence of soft tissue the most notable difference. The mortuary or thanatopraxy treatments performed before the burial and the microenvironmental conditions of the burial positively influence the soft tissue preservation on embalmed bodies. These results contribute to the understanding about the decomposition rate of an embalmed cadavers in cemeteries, and the related extrinsic variables.</p> Pilar Mata Tutor Catherine Villoria Rojas María Benito Sánchez Copyright (c) 2020 © Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-05-23 2021-05-23 2 1 49–60 49–60 10.1558/aefs.17953 The Use of GIS in Forensic Archaeology to Search Clandestine Graves in Uruguay <p>In the context of the search of detainee disappeared from the dictatorship occurred in Uruguay, forensic archaeology uses GIS as an auxiliary tool which allows to create, edit, visualize, store, analyse and publish geospatial data and information related to the investigation process. The tools of GIS are described in this article to show the results and information obtained which are going to be useful in the analytic processes leading to the design of new search strategies and archaeological intervention according to the available resources for this context. Two case studies are presented with the purpose to show the use of QGIS as a result of the three main areas of work: preliminary, fieldwork and laboratory. QGIS is presented as one of the most versatile, dynamic and accessible tool to investigate the search of detainee disappeared in Uruguay.</p> Matías López Batista Sofía Rodríguez López Annika Fieguth Batista Copyright (c) 2021 © Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-05-23 2021-05-23 2 1 61–74 61–74 10.1558/aefs.18106 A Study to Assess the Variables that Influence the Degree of Mummification and Skeletonization in a modern USA Population <p>Taphonomic studies through experimental research at Forensic Anthropological Research Facilities are continuously developing our understanding of soft tissue decomposition in controlled environments. Photographic archives provide an alternative means to study decomposition using associated detailed case notes, environmental variables surrounding the death and (if known) post-mortem interval (PMI). Leccia, Alunni and Quatrehomme (2018) utilized this resource to calculate the total body surface area (TBSA) in bodies with extensive and complete mummification using “the rule of nines,” a method where the body is sectioned into nine anatomical sections to assess TBSA burnt however they did not test this statistically. This article aims to revise their study by implementing the more representative Lund and Browder chart (Yasti et al. 2015) to visually assess all degree of mummification and skeletonization, through a secondary data analysis study using autopsy photographs of 17 cases from Allegheny County Medical Examiner’s Office, Pittsburgh, between 2007–2016. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on the body section scores to reveal high correlation co-efficients (&gt;0.95) between anatomical sections indicating a high confidence, mummification and/or skeletonization on multiple body parts will co-exist on a decomposed body. PCA of recorded variables revealed that after body position was removed from analysis, the majority of variables had strong values. i.e., those with a numerically large magnitude (.750 to .850, -.767 to -.840). Multiple regression analysis and ANOVA revealed age to be the significant independent variable at 10% significance level. The results of this study have forensic application for crime scene investigators, mummification and skeletonization percentages can be effectively recorded upon examination of a body, whilst also demonstrating variables that have a significant effect on presentation of these two post-mortem changes. Further examination of globally dependant variables affecting modern mummification is encouraged.</p> C. Jackson-Mitchell S. Giles Copyright (c) 2021 © Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2021-05-23 2021-05-23 2 1 75–95 75–95 10.1558/aefs.19172