God, Geography, and Justice


  • Daniel Linford Christopher Newport University
  • William R. Patterson Independent Scholar




Problem of Evil, Atheism, Theodicy, Skeptical Theism


The existence of various sufferings has long been thought to pose a problem for the existence of a personal God: the Problem of Evil (POE). In this paper, we propose an original version of POE, in which the geographic distribution of sufferings and of opportunities for flourishing or suffering is better explained if the universe, at bottom, is indifferent to the human condition than if, as theists propose, there is a personal God from whom the universe originates: the Problem of Geography (POG). POG moves beyond previous versions of POE because traditional responses to POE (skeptical theism and various theodicies) are less effective as responses to POG than they are to other versions of POE.

Author Biography

Daniel Linford, Christopher Newport University

I am currently an instructor at Christopher Newport University and an adjunct professor at Thomas Nelson Community College. I do research in philosophy of religion, value theory, and metaphysics. I earned my master’s degree in philosophy at Virginia Tech where I wrote a thesis on the relationship between atheism and the Thomistic doctrine of analogy. I am presently working on applying to PhD programs.


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How to Cite

Linford, D., & Patterson, W. (2016). God, Geography, and Justice. Essays in the Philosophy of Humanism, 23(2), 189–216. https://doi.org/10.1558/eph.v23i2.28019