Motives of attentiveness and their interactional manifestations


  • Saeko Fukushima Tsuru University



interpersonal pragmatics, attentiveness, empathy, reciprocity


The present study approaches attentiveness (demonstrated by a pre-emptive response in the form of an offer) in a context wherein interpersonal relations have attracted increasing attention in recent (im)politeness research. It aims to delve into what motivates the demonstration of attentiveness and how it impacts the unfolding of interaction. Insights from multiple disciplines such as social psychology, anthropology, and cultural semantics are drawn in the course of the present investigation. It is proposed that attentiveness is motivated by empathy and/or reciprocity, which can partly explain how interaction occurs and unfolds. It is also shown that attentiveness motivated by empathy and that by reciprocity are interrelated.

Author Biography

Saeko Fukushima, Tsuru University

Saeko Fukushima is Professor in the Department of English at Tsuru University in Japan. She has published Requests and Culture: Politeness in British English and Japanese (Peter Lang 2000/2002/2003) and articles in edited volumes and international journals such as Journal of Politeness Research, Journal of Pragmatics, Language Sciences, Multilingua, Pragmatics and World Englishes. Her research interests include cross-cultural pragmatics, intercultural pragmatics, sociopragmatics, pragmalinguistics, politeness, and metapragmatics.


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How to Cite

Fukushima, S. (2020). Motives of attentiveness and their interactional manifestations. East Asian Pragmatics, 5(2), 223–246.