Tools that detectives use: in search of learner-related determinants for usage of optional feedback in a written murder mystery
Keywords:feedback, learner behaviour, individual differences, learners’ perceptions, tutorial CALL
This paper explores individual difference factors in relation with usage of optional CF in a written and task-based tutorial CALL environment for English grammar practice that contained gaming features. Previous research in CALL has highlighted the importance of prior knowledge for learners’ usage of CF options (Brandl, 1995; Heift, 2002), but the contribution of metacognitive and affective variables remains unexplored. Based on insights from the literature on tool use (e.g. Author 4 & Elen, 2009), this pilot study considered that learners’ usage of optional CF in CALL might additionally be determined by the perceived usefulness of CF and by learners’ achievement goal orientation. Quantitative analysis of questionnaire data in combination with tracking and logging data showed that usage of optional CF was associated with prior explicit knowledge, but no relation was found with perceived usefulness and achievement goal orientation. Future research on CF usage could benefit from qualitative in-depth analyses of learners’ perceptions and motives.
Aleven, V., Stahl, E., Schworm, S., Fischer, F., & Wallace, R. (2003). Help seeking and help design in interactive learning environments. Review of Educational Re-search, 73(3), 277–320.
Aljaafreh, A., & Lantolf, J. P. (1994). Negative feedback as regulation and second language learning in the zone of proximal development. Modern Language Journal, 78(4), 465–483.
Baker, R., Walonoski, J., Heffernan, N., Roll, I., Corbett, A., & Koedinger, K. (2008). Why students engage in “Gaming the System” behavior in interactive learning envi-ronments. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 19(2), 185–224.
Brandl, K. K. (1995). Strong and weak students’ preferences for error feedback options and responses. The Modern Language Journal, 79(2), 194–211.
Carroll, S. E. (1995). On the irrelevance of verbal feedback to language learning. In L. Eubank (Ed.), The current state of interlanguage: Studies in honor of William E. Rutherford (pp. 73–88). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Carroll, S. E. (2001). Input and evidence. The raw material of second language acquisi-tion. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Chenoweth, N. A., Day, R. R., Chun, A. E., & Luppescu, S. (1983). Attitudes and Prefer-ences of ESL Students to Error Correction. Studies in Second Language Acquisi-tion, 6(1), 79–87.
Clarebout, G., & Elen, J. (2006). Tool use in computer-based learning environments: To-wards a research framework. Computers in Human Behavior, 22(3), 389–411. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2004.09.007
Clarebout, G., & Elen, J. (2009). The complexity of tool use in computer-based learning environments. Instructional Science, 37(5), 475-486. doi:10.1007/s11251-008-9068-3
Colpaert, J. (2004). Design of online interactive language courseware: Conceptualization, specification and prototyping. Research into the impact of linguistic-didactic functionality on software architecture. University of Antwerp, Antwerp.
Cornillie, F., Clarebout, G., & Desmet, P. (2012). Between learning and playing? Exploring learners’ perceptions of corrective feedback in an immersive game for English pragmatics. ReCALL, 24(3), 257–278. doi:10.1017/S0958344012000146
Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334.
Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319–340.
Desmet, P. (2007). L’apport des TIC à la mise en place d’un dispositif d’apprentissage des langues centré sur l’apprenant. ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguis-tics, 154, 91–110.
Dörnyei, Z. (2003). Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, adminis-tration, and processing. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educa-tional Psychologist, 34(3), 169-189.
Elliot, A. J., Murayama, K., & Pekrun, R. (2011). A 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(3), 632– 648. doi:10.1037/a0023952
Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. (2009). Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language. In R. Ellis, S. Loewen, C. Elder, R. Erlam, J. Philp, & H. Reinders (Eds.), Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language learning, testing and teaching (pp. 31–64). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Ellis, R., Loewen, S., & Erlam, R. (2006). Implicit and explicit corrective feedback and the acquisition of L2 grammar. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28(2), 339-368.
Fischer, R. (2007). How do we know what students are actually doing? Monitoring stu-dents’ behavior in CALL. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 20(5), 409-442. doi:10.1080/09588220701746013
Heift, T. (2001). Error-specific and individualised feedback in a web-based language tutoring system: Do they read it? ReCALL, 13(1), 99-109. doi:10.1017/S095834400100091X
Heift, T. (2002). Learner control and error correction in ICALL: Browsers, peekers, and adamants. CALICO Journal, 19(2), 295-313.
Heift, T. (2004). Corrective feedback and learner uptake in CALL. ReCALL, 16(02), 416–431. doi:10.1017/S0958344004001120
Heift, T. (2006). Context-sensitive help in CALL. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 19(2-3), 243-259. doi:10.1080/09588220600821552
Hubbard, P. (2002). Interactive participatory dramas for language learning. Simulation & Gaming, 33(2), 210-216. Retrieved from http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/re-print/33/2/210
Hubbard, P., & Bradin Siskin, C. (2004). Another look at tutorial CALL. ReCALL, 16(2), 448-461.
Juul, J. (2010). A casual revolution: Reinventing video games and their players. Cam-bridge, MA: MIT Press.
Karabenick, S. A. (2011). Classroom and technology-supported help seeking: The need for converging research paradigms. Learning and Instruction, 21(2), 290-296. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2010.07.007
Kim, H., & Mathes, G. (2001). Explicit vs. implicit corrective feedback. The Korea TESOL Journal, 4, 1-15.
Kuder, G. F., & Richardson, M. W. (1937). The theory of the estimation of test reliability. Psychometrika, 2(3), 151-160.
Lagatie, R., & De Causmaecker, P. (2010). The effect of repetition feedback on success rate and uptake. In J. Sanchez & K. Zhang (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2010 (pp. 536–542). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Lai, C., Fei, F., & Roots, R. (2008). The contingency of recasts and noticing. CALICO Journal, 26(1), 70-90.
Lai, C., & Zhao, Y. (2006). Noticing and text-based chat. Language Learning & Technol-ogy, 10(3), 102-120.
Levy, M. (1997). Computer-assisted language learning: Context and conceptualization. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Loewen, S. (2009). Grammaticality judgment tests and the measurement of implicit and explicit L2 knowledge. In R. Ellis, S. Loewen, C. Elder, R. Erlam, J. Philp, & H. Reinders (Eds.), Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language learning, testing and teaching (pp. 94-112). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Lust, G., Elen, J., & Clarebout, G. (2011). Adopting webcasts over time: The influence of perceptions and attitudes. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 24(1), 40-57. doi:10.1007/s12528-011-9052-9
Lyster, R., & Ranta, L. (1997). Corrective feedback and learner uptake. Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19(1), 37-66. doi:10.1017/S0272263197001034
Lyster, R., & Saito, K. (2010). Oral feedback in classroom SLA. A meta-analysis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32(2), 265-302. doi:10.1017/S0272263109990520
Mackey, A., Gass, S. M., & McDonough, K. (2000). How do learners perceive interac-tional feedback? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 44(2), 471-497.
Mackey, A., & Philp, J. (1998). Conversational interaction and second language develop-ment: Recasts, responses, and red herrings ? Modern Language Journal, 82(3), 338-356.
Magilow, D. H. (1999). Case study #2: Error correction and classroom affect. Die Unter-richtspraxis / Teaching German, 32(2), 125-129. doi:10.2307/3531752
Nagata, N. (1993). Intelligent computer feedback for second language instruction. Modern Language Journal, 77(3), 330-339.
Nicholas, H., Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (2001). Recasts as feedback to language learners. Language Learning, 51(4), 719-758.
Philp, J. (2003). Constraints on “Noticing the Gap”. Nonnative speakers’ noticing of re-casts in NS-NNS interaction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 25(1), 99-126. doi:10.1017/S0272263103000044
Pinker, S. (1989). Learnability and cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Purushotma, R., Thorne, S. L., & Wheatley, J. (2008). 10 key principles for designing video games for foreign language learning. Retrieved from http://knol.google.com/k/ra-vi-purushotma/10-key-principles-for-designing-video/27mkxqba7b13d/2#done
Radecki, P. M., & Swales, J. M. (1988). ESL student reaction to written comments on their written work. System, 16(3), 355-365.
Russell, J., & Spada, N. (2006). The effectiveness of corrective feedback for the acquisi-tion of L2 grammar: A meta-analysis of the research. In J. M. Norris & L. Ortega (Eds.), Synthesizing research on language learning and teaching (pp. 133-164). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Sachs, R., & Suh, B.-R. (2007). Textually enhanced recasts, learner awareness, and L2 outcomes in synchronous computer-mediated interaction. In A. Mackey (Ed.), Conversational Interaction in second language acquisition (pp. 197-227). Ox-ford: Oxford UP.
Sanders, R. H., & Sanders, A. F. (1995). History of an AI spy game: SPION. CALICO Journal, 12(4), 114-127.
Schulz, R. A. (2001). Cultural Differences in Student and Teacher Perceptions Concerning the Role of Grammar Instruction and Corrective Feedback: USA-Colombia. The Modern Language Journal, 85(2), 244–258. doi:10.1111/0026-7902.00107
Sheen, Y. (2006). Exploring the relationship between characteristics of re-casts and learner uptake. Language Teaching Research, 10(4), 361-392. doi:10.1191/1362168806lr203oa
Sheen, Y. (2011). Corrective feedback, individual differences and second language learn-ing. London: Springer.
Smith, B. (2012). Eye tracking as a measure of noticing: A study of explicit recasts in SCMC. Language Learning & Technology, 16(3), 53-81.
Tops, G. A. J., Dekeyser, X., Devriendt, B., & Geukens, S. (2001). Dutch speakers. In M. Swan & B. Smith (Eds.), Learner English. A teacher’s guide to interference and other problems (2nd ed., pp. 1-20). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Winne, P. H. (2004). Students’ calibration of knowledge and learning processes: Impli-cations for designing powerful software learning environments. International Journal of Educational Research, 41(6), 466-488. doi:10.1016/j.ijer.2005.08.012