Method of Adaption and New Vocabulary


  • Ujjwal Kumar University of Calcutta




Lokanīti, nīti literature, subhāṣitās, Pāli literature from Sanskrit, Burma


In this paper I have made an attempt to discuss the adaptation method and new vocabulary employed and introduced by the Lokaniti (Ln). This text was composed in Burma most probably by Catrungabala around the fourteenth century CE. In premodern Burma Ln was used in monasteries to inculcate guidance on worldly affairs and everyday morality to the Burmese householders in general and to the Buddhist monks in particular.

Author Biography

Ujjwal Kumar, University of Calcutta

Associate Professor, Department of Buddhist Studies, University of Calcutta, Kolkata-700073, West Bengal, India


Bechert, Heinz. 1962. Sanskrittexte Aus Ceylon. München: In Kommission bei J. Kitzinger.

———. 1980. ‘Sihalaniti: Ein Ceylonesisches Sanskrit-Werk in Birmanischer Tradition.’ In Indianisme et Bouddhisme: Mélanges offerts à Mgr Étienne Lamotte, Edited by D. Donnet, 19–31. Publications de l’Institut orientaliste de Louvain 23. Louvain-la-Neuve: Universite catholique de Louvain, Institut orientaliste.

Bechert, Heinz and Braun, Heinz, eds. 1981. Pali Niti Texts of Burma: Dhammaniti, Lokaniti, Maharahaniti, Rajaniti. Text Series No. 171. London: Pali Text Society.

Gerini, Gerolamo Emilio. 1904. ‘On Siamese Proverbs and Idiomatic Expressions.’ The Journal of the Siamese Society 1: 11–168.

Gray, James. 1886. Ancient Proverbs and Maxims from Burmese Sources; Or, The Niti Literature of Burma. London: Trübner& Co.

Hahn, Michael. 2009. ‘The Tibetan Shes rab sdong bu and its Indian Sources (I)’. Minami Ajia Kotengaku (South Asian Classical Studies) 4: 1–78.

———. 2010. ‘The Tibetan Shes rab sdong bu and its Indian Sources (II)’. Minami Ajia Kotengaku (South Asian Classical Studies) 5: 1–50.

———. 2011. ‘The Tibetan Shes rab sdong bu and its Indian Sources (III)’. Minami Ajia Kotengaku (South Asian Classical Studies) 6: 305–353.

Kumar, Ujjwal. 2015. Lokaniti: Devanagari Samsakrana evam Hindi Anuvada. Devanagari Edition with Hindi translation. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan.

Malalasekera, Gunapala Piyasena. 1958. The Pali literature of Ceylon. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society.

Norman, Kenneth Roy. 1992. The Group of the Discourses (Sutta-nipata). Volume II. Revised PTS Translation Series No. 45. Oxford: Pali Text Society.

Sternbach, Ludwik, ed. 1969a. The Vyasa-subhasita-samgraha. Kashi Sanskrit Series 193. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sasnskrit Sansthan.

———. 1969b. The Spreading of Canakya’s Aphorisms Over ‘Greater India’. Calcutta: Calcutta Oriental Book Agency.

———. 1973. ‘Subhasita-samgraha-s, a forgotten chapter in the history of Sanskrit Literature’. IndologicaTaurinensia 1: 196–254.

———. 1974. Subhasita, Gnomic and Didactic Literature. In A History of Indian Literature, Vol. 4, edited by J. Gonda. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Temple, Richard Carnak. 1878. ‘The Lokaniti, Translated from the Burmese paraphrase’. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, XLVII (III): 239–252.

Tu, Sean. 1962. Lokaniti: The Guide To Life. Yangon: INWA Publishing House.




How to Cite

Kumar, U. (2017). Lokaniti: Method of Adaption and New Vocabulary. Buddhist Studies Review, 34(1), 85–114. https://doi.org/10.1558/bsrv.30711