The Conversion of Angulimala in the Samyukta-agama


  • Bhikkhu Anālayo University of Hamburg



Aṅgulimāla, Saṃyukta-āgama, killer, saint


The present article offers a translation and comparative study of the conversion of Angulimala as recorded in the Samyukta-agama preserved in Chinese, with particular emphasis on what transformed a killer into a saint.

Author Biography

Bhikkhu Anālayo, University of Hamburg



Akanuma, Chizen. [1929] 1990. The Comparative Catalogue of Chinese Agamas & Pali Nikayas. Delhi: Sri Satguru.

Analayo. 2006. ‘The Ekottarika-agama Parallel to the Saccavibhanga-sutta and the Four (Noble) Truths’. Buddhist Studies Review 23(2): 145–53.

Analayo. 2009 forthcoming. ‘Zeng-yi A-han’. Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, ed. W. G. Weeraratne, 8(3). Sri Lanka: Department of Buddhist Aff airs.

Anesaki, Masaharu. 1908. ‘The Four Buddhist Agamas in Chinese’. Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan 35(3): 1–149.

Bareau, André. 1985. ‘Etude du Bouddhism’. In Annuaire du Collège de France 1985–1986, 533–47. Paris: Collège de France.

Beal, Samuel. [1884] 2001. Buddhist Records of the Western World, vol. 2. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

Bechert, Heinz & Klaus Wille (eds). 1989. Sanskrithandschriften aus den Turfanfunden, Teil 6, Die Katalognummern 1202–1599. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.

Bernhard, Franz. 1969. ‘Zum Titel des sogenannten “Udanavarga”’. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Supplementa I 3: 872–81.

Bingenheimer, Marcus. 2006. ‘The Shorter Chinese Samyukta agama – Preliminary Findings and Translation of Fascicle 1 of the Bieyi za ahan jing (T. 100)’. Buddhist Studies Review 23(1): 21–60.

Bucknell, Roderick S. 2006. ‘Samyukta-agama’. In Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, ed. W. G. Weeraratne, 7(4): 684–7. Sri Lanka: Department of Buddhist Affairs.

Choong, Mun-keat. 2000. The Fundamental Teachings of Early Buddhism: A Comparative Study Based on the Sutranga Portion of the Pali Samyutta-Nikaya and the Chinese Samyuktagama. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.

Cowell, E. B. & Robert A. Neil (eds). 1886. The Divyavadana: A Collection of Early Buddhist Legends. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dhammajoti, Bhikkhu K. L. 1995. The Chinese Version of Dharmapada, Translated with Introduction and Annotations. Sri Lanka: University of Kelaniya, Postgraduate Institute of Pali and Buddhist Studies.

Eitel, Ernest J. [1888] 2004. Handbook of Chinese Buddhism, Being a Sanskrit-Chinese Dictionary With Vocabularies of Buddhist Terms in Pali, Singhalese, Siamese, Burmese, Tibetan, Mongolian and Japanese. Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Enomoto, Fumio. 1986. ‘On the Formation of the Original Texts of the Chinese Agamas’. Buddhist Studies Review 3(1): 19–30.

Enomoto, Fumio. 1994. A Comprehensive Study of the Chinese Samyuktagama; Part 1: Samgitinipata. Kyoto: Kacho Junior College.

Gombrich, Richard F. 1996. How Buddhism Began, the Conditioned Genesis of the Early Teachings. London: Athlone.

Guruge, Ananda W. P. 2003. ‘How the Buddha Taught’. In Pranamalekha, Essays in Honour of Ven. Dr. Medagama Vajiragnana, ed. W. Wimalajothi et al., 333–83. London: Buddhist Vihara.

Harris, Elizabeth J. 1994. Violence and Disruption in Society. A Study of the Early Buddhist Texts. Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society.

Harrison, Paul. 2002. ‘Another Addition to the An Shigao Corpus? Preliminary Notes on an Early Chinese Samyuktagama Translation’. In Early Buddhism and Abhidharma Thought, in Honor of Doctor Haj ime Sakurabe on His Seventy-seventh Birthday, ed. Sakurabe Ronshu Committee, 1–32. Kyoto: Heirakuji shoten.

Hartmann, Jens Uwe. 1998. ‘Sanskrit Fragments from the Agamas (I): The Angulimalasutra’. Indologica Taurinensia 23/24: 351–62.

Hiraoka, Satoshi. 2000. ‘The Sectarian Affi liation of Two Chinese Samyuktagamas’. Indogaku Bukkyogaku Kenkyu 49(1): 506–500.

Legge, James. [1886] 1998. A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.

Lü, Cheng. 1963. ‘Agama’. In Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, ed. G. P. Malalasekera, 1(2): 241–4. Sri Lanka: Department of Buddhist Aff airs.

Maitrimurthi Mudagamuwa & Alexander von Rospatt. 1998. Review of Gombrich 1996. Indo-Iranian Journal 41: 164–79.

Mayeda [=Maeda], Egaku. 1985. ‘Japanese Studies on the Schools of the Chinese Agamas’. In Zur Schulzugehörigkeit von Werken der Hinayana-Literatur, Erster Teil, Vol. 1, ed. H. Bechert, 94–103. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Nattier, Jan. 2007. ‘“One Vehicle” in the Chinese Agamas: New Light on an Old Problem in Pali’. Annual Report of the International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology at Soka University 10: 181–200.

Schlingloff , Dieter. 1988. Studies in the Ajanta Paintings. Delhi: Ajanta Publications.

Schmidt, Isaak Jakob. 1843. Der Weise und der Thor. St. Petersburg: Gräff .

Schmithausen, Lambert. 1987. ‘Beiträge zur Schulzugehörigkeit und Textgeschichte kanonischer und postkanonischer buddhistischer Materialien’. In Zur Schulzugehörigkeit von Werken der HinayanaLiteratur, Zweiter Teil, Vol. 2, ed. H. Bechert, 304–406. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Schmithausen, Lambert. 2003. ‘Einige Besondere Aspekte der “Bodhisattva-Ethik” in Indien und Ihre Hintergründe’. Horin, Vergleichende Studien zur Japanischen Kultur 10: 21–46.

Soothill, William Edward & L. Hodous. [1937] 2000. A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

Stede, W. 1957. ‘Angulimala and Liberation’. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 20: 533– 5.

Tekin, Sinasi. 1980. Maitrisimit nom bitig. Die uigurische Übersetzung eines Werkes der buddhistischen Vaibhasika Schule. Berlin: Akademie Verlag.

Wagle, Narendra. 1966. Society at the Time of the Budda. Bombay: Popular Prakashan.

Waldschmidt, Ernst, Walther Clawiter & Lore Sander-Holzman (eds). 1965. Sanskrithandschriften aus den Turfanfunden, Vol. 1. Wiesbaden: Steiner.

Waldschmidt, Ernst. 1980. ‘Central Asian Sutra Fragments and their Relation to the Chinese Agamas’. In The Language of the Earliest Buddhist Tradition, ed. H. Bechert, 136–74. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Willemen, Charles. 1978. The Chinese Udanavarga, A Collection of Important Odes of the Law, Fa Chi Yao Sung Ching, Translated and Annotated. Brussels: Institut Belge des Hautes Études Chinoises.

Yin-shun. 1962. [The Compilation of the Early Buddhist Canon]. Taipei.

Yin-shun. 1983. [Combined Edition of the Samyukta-agama Text and Commentary], Vol. 3. Taipei.




How to Cite

Anālayo, B. (2008). The Conversion of Angulimala in the Samyukta-agama. Buddhist Studies Review, 25(2), 135–148.