The Structure and Formation of the Anguttara Nikaya and the Ekottarika Agama
Keywords:Aṅguttara, Nikāya, Ekottarika, Āgama, nipāta
In both the Anguttara Nikaya in Pali and the Ekottarika Agamain Chinese translation, the suttas are grouped into eleven nipatas (“books”), from the Ekaka-nipata/Eka-nipata (Book of Ones) to the Ekadasaka-nipata (Book of Elevens) – though in the Ekottarika Agama the nipatas are not labelled as such. This grouping into nipatas is based on the number of doctrinal items dealt with in the component suttas. In the Ones and Twos, it is often the case that a single original sutta has been subdivided so that its component sections become a series of similarly structured derivative suttas superficially appropriate for inclusion in the Ones or Twos. Moreover, material for this process of subdividing has sometimes been provided by multiplying doctrinal sets with formulaic statements. In most of the remaining nipatas the phenomena noted in the Ones and Twos are also present, but on a much smaller scale. In view of their Chinese counterparts in the Samyukta Agama, some groups of suttas in the Anguttara Nikaya with samyutta-like nature were probably moved from the Samyutta Nikaya to the Anguttara Nikaya within the Pali tradition. Evidence of a comparable movement into the Ekottarika Agama is also available. The artificial suttas created by subdivision and the original suttas shared by the Ekottarika Agama and the Anguttara Nikaya largely retained their original places at the beginning of each nipata, while the genuine suttas, probably earlier located in the Samyukta Agama and Madhyama Agama, were added progressively at the end of the growing nipata.
Akanuma, Chizen. 1929. The Comparative Catalogue of Chinese Agamas & Pali Nikayas. Taipei. Reprinted 1986.
———. 1981. On the History of the Buddhist Scriptures. Kyoto.
Analayo, Bhikkhu. 2013. ‘Two Versions of the Mahadeva Tale in the Ekottarika-agama: A Study in the Development of Taisho No. 125’. In Research on the Ekottarika-agama (Taisho 125), ed. Dhammadinna, 1–70. Taipei: Dharma Drum Publishing Corporation.
Bareau, André. 1955. Les sectes bouddhiques du petit véhicule. Paris: École Française d’Extrême-Orient.
Bodhi, Bhikkhu, trans. 2000. The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. Oxford: Pali Text Society.
———, trans. 2012. The Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Anguttara Nikaya. Boston, MA: Wisdom Publications.
Bronkhorst, Johannes. 1985. ‘Dharma and Abhidharma’. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 48(2): 305–320.
Bucknell, Roderick S. 2014. ‘The Structure of the Sanskrit Dirgha-agama from Gilgit vis-à-vis the Pali Digha-nikaya’. In Research on the Dirgha-agama, edited by Dhammadinna, 57–101. Taipei: Dharma Drum Publishing Corporation.
Hardy, E., ed. 1900. The Anguttara-Nikaya, Part V. London: Pali Text Society, reprinted 1958.
Hare, E.M., trans. 1934. The Book of the Gradual Sayings, vol. III. Oxford: Pali Text Society. Reprinted 2001.
———, trans. 1935. The Book of the Gradual Sayings, Vol. IV. Oxford: Pali Text Society, reprinted 2001.
Harrison, Paul. 1997. ‘The Ekottarikagama Translations of An Shigao’. Bauddhavidyasudhakarah: Studies in Honour of Heinz Bechert on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday, edited by Petra Kieffer-Pülz and Jens-Uwe Hartmann, 261–284. Swisttal-Odendorf: Indica et Tibetica Verlag.
Kuan, Tse-fu. 2013a. ‘The Pavarana Sutta and “liberation in both ways” as against “liberation by wisdom”.’ Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 76(1): 49–73.
———. 2013b. ‘Mahayana Elements and Mahasamghika Traces in the Ekottarika-agama’. In Research on the Ekottarika-agama (Taisho 125), edited by Dhammadinna, 133–194. Taipei: Dharma Drum Publishing Corporation.
———. 2013c. ‘Legends and Transcendence: Sectarian Affiliations of the Ekottarika agama in Chinese Translation’. Journal of the American Oriental Society 133(4): 607–634.
Norman, K.R. 1983. Pali Literature: Including the Canonical Literature in Prakrit and Sanskrit of All the Hinayana Schools of Buddhism. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Okubo, Yusen 1982. ‘The Ekottara-agama Fragments of the Gilgit Manuscript’. Bukkyogaku Semina 35: 120–91 (1–30).
———. 1984. ‘An Examination of the Sanskrit Ekottarika Agama [fragments], Part 2’. Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 32(2): 706–707.
Pande, Govind Chandra. 1995. Studies in the Origins of Buddhism, 4th revised edition. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Pasadika, Bhikkhu. 2010. ‘Gleanings from the Chinese Ekottaragama regarding School Affiliation and Other Topics’. In Translating Buddhist Chinese: Problems and Prospects, edited by Konrad Meisig, 87–96. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
Rhys Davids, C.A.F. 1910. ‘Prefatory Note’. In Anguttara-Nikaya Volume VI Indexes, edited by Mabel Hunt, vii–viii. London: Pali Text Society. Reprinted 1960.
Su, Ken. 2013. ‘The Uddanas and Structural Aspects of the Ekottarika-agama’. In Research on the Ekottarika-agama (Taisho 125), edited by Dhammadinna, 195–233. Taipei: Dharma Drum Publishing Corporation.
Tripathi, Chandrabhal. 1995. Ekottaragama-Fragmente der Gilgit-Handschrift. Reinbek: Verlag für Orientalistische Fachpublikationen.
Ui, Hakuju. 1965. A Study of Indian Philosophy, vol. II. Tokyo.
Waldschmidt, Ernst. 1980. ‘Central Asian Sutra Fragments and Their Relation to the Chinese Agamas’. The Language of the Earliest Buddhist Tradition, edited by Heinz Bechert, 136–174. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Woodward, F. L., trans. 1932. The Book of the Gradual Sayings, Vol. I. Oxford: Pali Text Society. Reprinted 2000.
———, trans. 1933. The Book of the Gradual Sayings, Vol. II. Oxford: Pali Text Society. Reprinted 2001.
———, trans. 1936. The Book of the Gradual Sayings, Vol. V. Oxford: Pali Text Society. Reprinted 1996.
Yinshun. 1983a. A Combined Edition of the Samyukta Agama Sutras and the Sastra [passages], Vol. II. Hsinchu.
———. 1983b. A Combined Edition of the Samyukta Agama Sutras and the Sastra [passages], Vol. III. Hsinchu.
———. 1994. Formation of the Original Buddhist Scriptures. 3rd revised edition. Taipei.