Empirical Studies on L2 Mandarin Chinese Production
What Can We Learn from Them?
Keywords:Mandarin Chinese tone learning, tone perception, tone production
This paper delineates an overview of Mandarin Chinese tone production empirical studies over the past three decades that reported the varying patterns of difficulty for L2 Mandarin learners. In this review, we investigate 19 studies chosen based on our selection criteria by analyzing the key factors in relation to the four main perspectives; namely, learners, instructors, target forms and researchers. We also analyze the patterns and issues found in this investigation. This overview aims to illuminate the current picture of L2 Chinese tone production and its complexity. In light of the insights garnered from this review, we propose a set of suggestions for future research and discuss broad implications for pedagogical approaches to tone learning.
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