Charismatic Catholicism, Pentecostal Prophetism and the Question of Influence in Nigeria
Ejike Mbaka as Case Study
Keywords:Charismatic, Catholicism, Pentecostal, prophecy, Ejike Mbaka, Nigeria
AbstractThere are notable operational and theological similarities between Pentecostalism and the Charismatic movements in Nigeria. This has led to many studies about the influence between the two. With regard to similarities between Pentecostals and Charismatic Catholics in Nigeria, such studies often assume the former as influencing the latter. In this paper, however, we demonstrate that the similarities and difference between the two movements in Nigeria have more complex origins than just one copying from the other. The cultural environment and a shared New Testament Canon in spite of the varied hermeneutics between Catholics and Pentecostals explain a good deal of the similarities. The doctrinal and liturgical frameworks of Catholicism and Pentecostalism explain the difference especially with respect to the understanding and function of prophecy among these Christian groups. Despite the complexity in the explanation of influence between the two movements, we note that an undeniable influence of Pentecostalism on the Catholic Charismatic movement, theologically and operationally represented by Ejike Mbaka, is the use of the charism of prophecy to influence political affairs.
Abioje, Pius O. “Christian Prophets and Other Prophets in Nigeria”: One Hundred and Sixty-Seventh (167th) Inaugural Lecture, University of Ilorin. Ilorin: University of Ilorin Press, 2017.
Achunike, Hilary C. “Pentecostalism and Catholic Liturgy”. In Luke E. Ijezie et al. (eds), Theology and Liturgy in the Life of the Church. Port Harcourt: CATHAN, 2012.
Achunike, Hilary C. The Influence of Pentecostalism on Catholic Priests and Seminarians in Nigeria. Onitsha: Africana-First Publishers, 2004.
Adefisoye, Taiwo O. “Prophesying or Prophelying? Prophets, Prophetic Punditry and the 2015 General Elections in Nigeria”. Case Studies Journal 6.3 (2017): 25–37.
Adoration Ministry Enugu Nigeria (AMEN). “Auto-Biography of Rev. Fr. Ejike Mbaka”. Retrieved from www.facebook.com/AmenFcbkPage/photos/auto-biography-of-rev-fr-ejike-mbaka-by-adoration-ministry-enugu-nigeria-amenrev/796878700365496 (accessed 23 April 2020).
Amanze, James N. “Role of Prophecy in the Growth and Expansion of the Synagogue Church of All Nations”. Scriptura 112.1 (2013), p. 2. https://doi.org/10.7833/112-0-91
Anon. “Mbaka’s New Year Prophecy about Ihedioha, Uzodinma’s S/Court Judgment”. Independent (14 January 2020). Retrieved from www.independent.ng/mbakas-new-year-prophecy-about-ihedioha-uzodinmas-s-court-judgment (accessed 24 January 2020).
Anon. “Rev. Fr. Ejike Mbaka Worshiping at Adoration on Sunday 9th June Pentecost B”. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/cuNOnS94Nfs (accessed 23 April 2020).
Anon. “Rev. Mbaka Fights Back against President Jonathan and First Lady Patience Jonathan”. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=a_cKgG_KqL4 (accessed 23 April 2020).
Anon. “Reverend Father Ejike Mbaka”. Retrieved from www.manpower.com.ng/people/17000/reverend-father-ejike-mbaka (accessed 23 April 2020).
Asamoah-Gyadu, Kwabena. “African Pentecostal/Charismatic Christianity: An Overview”. 2006. Retrieved from
Asinugo, Emeka. “The Question Rev. Fr. Mbaka Has to Answer”. The Nigerian Voice (7 September 2017). Retrieved from www.thenigerianvoice.com/news/256943/the-question-rev-fr-mbaka-has-to-answer.html (accessed 23 April 2020).
Bishau, David. “Prophecy in an African Context Methodological Considerations”. In Joachim Kügler, Masiiwa R. Gunda, Lovemore Togarasei and Eric Souga Onomo (eds), Prophets, Profits and the Bible in Zimbabwe: Festschrift for Aynos Masotcha Moyo. Bible in Africa Studies, Vol. 12. Bamberg: University of Bamberg Press, 2013: 55–78.
Catholic Bishops Conference of Nigeria (CBCN). “Guidelines for the Catholic Charismatic Renewal of Nigeria (1986)”. In Chris Anyanwu and Otunba Jide Fadugba-Pinheiro (eds), Our Concern for Nigeria. Catholic Bishops Speak: Communiqués Issued by the Catholic Bishop’s Conference of Nigeria (CBCN) on the State of the Church and Nigerian Nation from 1963–2015. Lagos: Gazup Prints Limited, 2015, p. 46.
Chukwurah, Chris. “Dimensions of Inculturation and Contextualization”. In Patrick Chibuko and Simeon Eboh (eds), Inculturation in the Third Millennium: 10th CIWA Theology Week, March 8th–12th 1999. Port Harcourt: CIWA Press, 1999: 99–100.
Ebebe, Cosmas Okechukwu. The Impact of Pentecostalism on the Catholic Church. Nimo: Rex Charles and Patrick, 2014.
Egbe, Robert. “Mbaka – the Man and His Prophecies”. The Nation (15 January 2020). Retrieved from https://thenationonlineng.net/mbaka-the-man-and-his-prophecies (accessed 23 April 2020).
Eleke, David-Chyddy. “Mbaka’s Prophetic Controversies”. This Day (9 January 2020). Retrieved from www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2020/01/19/mbakas-prophetic-controversies (accessed 26 April 2020).
Hagin, Kenneth E. Gift of Prophecy. Tulsa, OK: Kenneth Hagin Ministries, 1985.
Ihejirika, Walter C. From Catholicism to Pentecostalism: Role of Nigerian Televangelists in Religious Conversion. Port Harcourt: University of Port Harcourt Press, 2006.
Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC). “2019 Governorship Election Results – INEC Nigeria”. Retrieved from www.inecnigeria.org/2019-governorship-election-results (accessed 21 January 2020).
Jacobsen, Douglas (ed.). Reader in Pentecostal Theology: Voices from the First Generation. Indianapolis, IN: University of Indiana Press, 2006.
John S. Mbiti, “The Encounter of Christian Faith and African Religion”. The Christian Century 97.27 (27 August 1980), p. 819.
Joseph A. Cirrincione, Ven. Francisco Marto of Fatima. Charlotte, NC: TAN Books and Publishers, 1994).
Kalu, Ogbu. African Pentecostalism: An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195340006.001.0001
Kanu, Ikechukwu A. and Haaga, Paul T. “Ethical and Religious Values in African Traditional Religion with Christian Analogies”. International Journal of Theology & Reformed Tradition 3 (2011), p. 247.
Kazah, Emmanuel F. Administrative Acts in the Administration of Temporal Goods. Sources Analyses and Prospects for the Nigerian Conference of Bishops. Rome: Pontificia Università Lateranensis, 2018.
Kondor, Luigi and Alonso, Joaquin Maria. Fatima in Lucia’s Own Words: Sister Lucia’s Memoirs. London: Catholic Truth Society, 2017.
Manyeruke, Charity and Hamauswa, Shakespear. “Prophets and Politics in Zimbabwe”. In Joachim Kügler, Masiiwa R. Gunda, Lovemore Togarasei and Eric Souga Onomo (eds), Prophets, Profits and the Bible in Zimbabwe: Festschrift for Aynos Masotcha Moyo. Bible in Africa Studies, Vol. 12. Bamberg: University of Bamberg Press, 2013.
Marshall, Ruth. Political Spiritualities: The Pentecostal Revolution in Nigeria. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2009.
Mbachirin, Abraham T. “The Responses of the Church in Nigeria to Socio-Economic, Political and Religious Problems in Nigeria: A Case Study of the Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN)”. PhD Diss. Baylor University, USA, 2006.
Mbiti, John S. “Christianity and African Culture”. Journal of Theology for Southern Africa 20 (September 1977): 28, 30.
McCutcheon, Russell T. “Introduction [to Part I]”. In Russell T. McCutcheon (ed.), The Insider/Outsider Problem in the Study of Religion: A Reader. London: Continuum, 1999.
Nel, Marius. “The African Background of Pentecostal Theology: A Critical Perspective”.
In Die Skriflig/In Luce Verbi 53.4 (29 May 2019), p. 8.
Nkulu-N’Sengha, Mutombo. “Divination Systems”. In Molefi K. Asante and Ama Mazama (eds), Encyclopedia of African Religion. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2009.
Nkwocha, Isidore. “Charismatic Renewal and Pentecostalism: The Renewal of the Nigerian Catholic Church”. PhD dissertation, Duquesne University, USA, 2019.
Nkwopara, C. “Ihedioha vs Uzodinma: Catholic Bishops Condemn Manipulative Predictions, Rumours”. Vanguard (27 January 2020). Retrieved from www.vanguardngr.com/2020/01/ihedioha-vs-uzodinma-catholic-bishops-condemn-manipulative-predictions-rumours (accessed 27 January 2020).
Nwachukwu, John O. “Ihedioha’s Sack: No Prophets in Catholic Church, Mbaka Working for APC – Prophet Olabayo”. Daily Post (10 February 2020). Retrieved from https://dailypost.ng/2020/02/10/ihediohas-sack-no-prophets-in-catholic-church-mbaka-working-for-apc-prophet-olabayo (accessed 9 May 2020).
Nwachukwu, John O. “Mbaka not a Prophet of God, Amotekun Will Turn Terrorist Group – Primate Ayodele Declares”. Daily Post (1 February 2020). Retrieved from https://dailypost.ng/2020/02/01/mbaka-not-prophet-of-god-amotekun-will-turn-terrorist-group-primate-ayodele-declares (accessed 9 May 2020).
Nzomiwu, Emmanuel. “Breaking: At Last, Catholic Church Bans Mbaka”. Independent (9 December 2018). Retrieved from www.independent.ng/breaking-at-last-catholic-church-bans-mbaka (accessed 28 April 2020).
O’Collins, Gerald and Farrugia, Mario. Catholicism: The Story of Catholic Christianity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2nd edn, 2015.
Obinwa, Ignatius M. C. “Pentecostalism, and the Ministry of Catholic Priests in Nigeria Today: A Perspective from Joel 2:28-29”. Ministerium – A Journal of Contextual Theology 4 (2018): 64–80.
Oduma-Aboh, Solomon O. “The Psycho-Social and Cultural Dimension to the Growth of Pentecostalism in Nigeria”. In Victor U. Jamahh (ed.), Catholic Biblical and Theological Evaluation of Some Pentecostal Teachings in Nigeria. Proceedings of the Maiden Edition of the Theology Week of Good Shepherd Major Seminary, Kaduna, 13th–17th April 2016. Kaduna: Good Shepherd Major Seminary, 2016): 184–202.
Osinulu, Adedamola. “A Transnational History of Pentecostalism in West Africa”. History Compass 15 (2017), p. 8. https://doi.org/10.1111/hic3.12386
Osso, Nyako (ed.). “Mbaka, Rev. Camillus Anthony Ebenezer Ejike”. Retrieved from https://blerf.org/index.php/biography/mbaka-rev-camillus-ejike (accessed 23 April 2020).
Otonko, Jake. “Pentecostalism in Africa. Remote Historical Antecedents”. In Luke E. Ijezie, Stanley Anyanwu and Francis Usoh (eds), Ministry and Human Promotion in Nigeria. Enugu: BENEPS, 2013.
Oyakhilome, Chris. Prophecy: Understanding the Power That Controls Your Future. Ikeja: Love World Publications, 2005.
Oyedepo, David. “My Mentors and I”. The Elite Nigeria Blogspot (29 September 2014). Retrieved from http://theelitesnigeria.blogspot.com/2014/09/my-mentors-and-i-by-bishop-david-oyedepo.html (accessed 28 July 2020).
Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue (PCID). “Pastoral Attention to Traditional Religions”. Retrieved from www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/interelg/documents/rc_pc_interelg_doc_21111993_trad-relig_en.html (accessed 23 April 2020).
Pike, Kenneth L. “Etic and Emic Standpoints for the Description of Behavior”. In Russell T. McCutcheon (ed.), The Insider/Outsider Problem in the Study of Religion: A Reader. London: Continuum, 1999.
Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace. Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church. Vatican: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2004.
Quayesi-Amakye, Joseph. “Prophetism in Ghana’s New Prophetic Churches”. Journal of the European Pentecostal Theological Association 35.2 (October 2015): 162–73. https://doi.org/10.1179/1812446115Z.00000000019
Wariboko, Nimi. Nigerian Pentecostalism. Rochester, NY: Boydell & Brewer, 2014.
Yahaya, H. “Supreme Court Sacks Imo Governor, Declares APC Winner”. Premium Times (14 January 2020). Retrieved from www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/372609-breaking-supreme-court-sacks-imo-governor-declares-apc-winner.html (accessed 23 January 2020).
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.