Mediation in England and Wales

Why should it be mandatory?

Authors

  • Julio César Betancourt Chartered Institute of Arbitrators
  • John Lee Chartered Institute of Arbitrators

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1558/mtp.v1i1.28333

Keywords:

mediation, compulsory mediation, English law, mandatory mediation, unreasonable refusal to mediate, law in England and Wales, Discourse Analysis

Abstract

The role of mediation in the resolution of civil disputes has grown enormously in recent years. However, the question of the governmental and judicial role in supporting mediation has divided policymakers around the world. In particular, the question of whether mediation should be compulsory in certain cases has generated significant debate. This article examines the prevailing views on this issue in England and Wales today. It then considers the arguments for and against implementing mandatory mediation, with reference to the experience of other jurisdictions that have experimented with compulsion. It concludes that judges ought to be afforded a discretionary power to order parties to attend mediation as a prerequisite to access to the state courts in appropriate circumstances.

Author Biographies

Julio César Betancourt, Chartered Institute of Arbitrators

Julio César Betancourt was admitted to the practice of law in 2001. He holds postgraduate law degrees in the areas of damages, procedural law, international business law, constitutional law, and contract and damages. Julio César obtained his Master’s in Law from University College London, specialising in alternative dispute resolution, dispute resolution and conflict management, and international arbitration. He is currently a visiting research fellow at King’s College London, and is head of research and academic affairs at the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators in London, United Kingdom.

John Lee, Chartered Institute of Arbitrators

John Lee holds a Bachelor’s degree in Law from the University of Durham and a Master’s in International Commercial Law from University College London (UCL), specialising in negotiation, international commercial arbitration, and investment arbitration. John is currently a research associate at the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators’ headquarters in London and a research officer at the Centre for Construction Law and Dispute Resolution, King’s College London. His main areas of research include alternative dispute resolution, arbitration, mediation, and negotiation.

References

Ahmed, M. (2012) Implied compulsory mediation. Civil Justice Quarterly 31(2): 151.

Alexander, N. (2009) International and Comparative Mediation: Legal Perspectives. Dordrecht: Kluwer Law International.

Alexander, N. (2013) Harmonisation and diversity in the private international law of mediation: the rhythms of regulatory reform. In K. Hopt and F. Steffek (eds) Mediation: Principles and Regulation in Comparative Perspective 131–204. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bathurst, Chief Justice (2012) The role of the courts in the changing dispute resolution landscape. University of New South Wales Law Journal 35(3): 870.

Bergin, A. (2007) Mediation in Hong Kong: the way forward. New South Wales Judicial Scholarship 16. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/NSWJSchol/2007/16.html.

Betancourt, J. and Crook, J. (2014) ADR, arbitration, and mediation: a collection of essays: an overview. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2405428.

Brady, A. (2010) Jackson endorses the benefits of mediation in the legal process in England and Wales. Arbitration 76: 2.

Brown, H. and Marriott, A. (2012) ADR Principles and Practice (3rd edn). London: Sweet & Maxwell.

CEDR (2003) First mediation audit. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from www.cedr.com/foundation/research.

CEDR (2014) Sixth mediation audit. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from www.cedr.com/foundation/research.

Clarke, M. R. (2008) The future of civil mediation. Paper presented at the Second Civil Mediation Council National Conference, Birmingham, 8 May.

CMC (2012) Mediation count. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from www.civilmediation.org/downloads-get?id=592.

Dundas, H. (2010) Court-compelled mediation and the European Convention on Human Rights, Article 6. Arbitration 76(2): 343.

European Parliament (2011) Quantifying the Cost of Not Using Mediation: A Data Analysis. Brussels: European Parliament. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from www.europarl.europa.eu/document/activities/cont/201105/20110518ATT19592/20110518ATT19592EN.pdf.

European Parliament (2014) ‘Rebooting’ the Mediation Directive: Assessing the Limited Impact of its Implementation and Proposing Measures to Increase the Number of Mediations in the EU. Brussels: European Parliament. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/etudes/join/2014/493042/IPOL-JURI_ET(2014)493042_EN.pdf.

Faulks, Q. C. (2014) Mediation and government. Keynote speech at the Civil Mediation Conference, 22 May. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from www.gov.uk/government/speeches/mediation-and-government.

Genn, H., Fenn, P., Mason, M., Lane, A., Bechaim, N., Gray, L. and Vencappa, D. (2007) Twisting Arms: Court Referred and Court Linked Mediation under Judicial Pressure. London: Ministry of Justice.

Gutiérrez, F., Minorini, I. and Bomchil, M. (2010) New mediation and conciliation law in Argentina does not affect arbitration proceedings. 30 June. Law no. 26.589. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from http://uk.practicallaw.com/1-502-6631?service=publicsector.

Hank, M. (2012) Perspectives on Mandatory Mediation Forum. University of New South Wales Law Journal 18(2): 929.

Hann, R. and Baar, C. (2001) Evaluation of the Ontario Mandatory Mediation Program (Rule 24.1). Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario.

Hughes, P. (2001) Mandatory mediation: opportunity or subversion. Windsor Year Book of Access to Justice 19: 161.

Ingleby, R. (1993) Court sponsored mediation: the case against mandatory part­icipation. Modern Law Review 56(3): 449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2230.1993.tb02682.x

Jackson, L. J. (2009) Review of Civil Litigation Costs: Final Report. Norwich: TSO. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from www.judiciary.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/JCO/Documents/Reports/jackson-final-report-140110.pdf .

Lightman, G. J. (2007) Mediation: an approximation to justice. Speech delivered to SJ Berwin Mediation Summer Drinks reception. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from www.cedr.com/articles/?item=Mediation-an-approximation-to-justice-a-speech-by-The-Honourable-Mr-Justice-Lightman.

Linklaters (2013) Commercial Mediation: A Comparative Review. London: Link­laters. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from www.linklaters.com/pdfs/mkt/london/mediation_2013_7053.pdf.

Marks, T. and Betancourt, J. (2012) Rethinking public policy and alternative dispute resolution: negotiability, mediability and arbitrability. Arbitration 78(1): 19.

Masucci, D. (2014) CEDR’s Sixth Mediation Audit 2014. Kluwer Mediation Blog, 27 June. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from http://kluwermediationblog.com/2014/06/27/cedrs-sixth-mediation-audit-2014/.

McIntosh, M. (2003) A step forward: mandatory mediations. Australasian Dispute Resolution Journal 14: 280.

Mediator Academy (2015) Interview with Diana Paraguacuto: can mandatory mediation work? Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from https://mediatoracademy.com/interview/mandatory-mediation-can-it-work-does-it-work.

Menkel-Meadow, C. (2015) Variations in the uptake of and resistance to mediation outside of the United States. In E. Rovine (ed.) Contemporary Issues in Inter­national Arbitration and Mediation 189–224. Leiden: Brill. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/9789004305595_015

Ministry of Justice (2011) Clarke stamping out compensation culture fears. Press release, 29 March. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from www.gov.uk/government/news/clarke-stamping-out-compensation-culture-fears.

Ministry of Justice (2014) More free mediation sessions for separating couples. Press release, 20 August. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from www.gov.uk/government/news/more-free-mediation-sessions-for-separating-couples.

Moore, C. (2014) The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict (4th edn). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Morek, R. (2014) Pilot mandatory mediation program in New York. Kluwer Arbitra­tion Blog, 9 August. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from http://kluwermediationblog.com/2014/08/09/pilot-mandatory-mediation-program-in-new-york.

Neuberger, D. (2015) A view from on high. Keynote address presented at the Civil Mediation Conference, 12 May. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from www.supremecourt.uk/docs/speech-150512-civil-mediation-conference-2015.pdf.

Pel, M. (2008) Referral to Mediation: A Practical Guide for an Effective Mediation Proposal. The Hague: SDU Uitgevers.

Pennock, J. and Chapman, J. (eds) (2007) Coercion. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Phillips, L. J. (2008) Alternative dispute resolution: an English viewpoint speech given in India on 29 March 2008. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from www.civilmediation.org/downloads-get?id=119.

Posner, R. (1986) The summary jury trial and other methods of alternative dispute resolution: some cautionary observations. University of Chicago Law Review 53: 366. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1599644

Prince, S. (2009) ADR after the CPR: have ADR initiatives now assured mediation as an integral role in the civil justice system in England and Wales? In D. Dwyer (ed.) The Civil Procedure Rules Ten Years On 327. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199576883.003.0017

Robertson, M. (2004) The stamp of statistical approval. ADR Bulletin 7: 12.

Roebuck, D. (2007) The myth of modern mediation. Arbitration 73: 1.

Sander, F. (2007) Another view of mandatory mediation. Dispute Resolution Magazine 13(2): 16.

Sander, F. Allen, H. and Hensler, D. (1996) Judicial (mis)use of ADR? A debate. University of Toledo Law Review 27: 885.

Sourdin, T. (2009) Mediation in the Supreme and County Courts of Victoria. Report prepared for the Department of Justice, Victoria, Australia, April 2009. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1395550.

Spencer, D. and Brogan, M. (2007) Mediation Law and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511811005

Steffek, F. and Unberath, H. (2014) Regulating Dispute Resolution: ADR and Access to Justice at the Crossroads. London: Bloomsbury.

Suter, E. (2015) Unreasonable refusal to mediate and costs. Arbitration 81(1): 2.

Walker, B. S. C. and Bell, A. (2000) Justice according to compulsory mediation. Bar News (Spring): 7.

Warren, M. (2001) Commercial litigation and the commercial list in the Supreme
Court of Victoria. Speech delivered at the Law Institute of Victoria, 23 July. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from www.supremecourt.vic.gov.au/CA256CC60028922C/page/Publications-.

Welsh, N. (2001) The thinning vision of self-determination in court-connected mediation: the inevitable price of institutionalization? Harvard Negotiation Law Review 6(1): 1.

Woolf, M. R. (1995) Access to Justice: Interim Report 1995. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.dca.gov.uk/civil/interim/contents.htm.

Woolf, M. R. (1996) Access to Justice: Final Report to the Lord Chancellor on the Civil Justice System in England and Wales. Retrieved on 16 March 2016 from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.dca.gov.uk/civil/final/contents.htm.

Cases

Rosalba Alassini v. Telecom Italia SpA (Joined Cases C-317/08–C-320/08) [2010] 3 CMLR 17 ECJ.

Bradley v. Heslin [2014] EWHC 3267 (Ch).

Egan v. Motor Services (Bath) Ltd [2007] EWCA Civ 1002.

Faidi v. Elliot Corporation [2012] EWCA Civ 287.

Garritt-Critchley v. Ronnan [2015] 3 Costs LR 453.

Halsey v. Milton Keynes General NHS Trust [2004] EWCA Civ 576; [2004] 1 WLR. 3002 (CA (Civ Div)).

Hooper Bailie Associated Ltd v. Natcon Group Proprietary Ltd [1992] 28 NSWLR 194.

Laporte v. The Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis [2015] 3 Costs LR 471.

Oliver v. Symons [2012] EWCA Civ 267.

PGF II SA v. OMFS Co. 1 Ltd [2012] EWCA Civ 1288.

Published

2016-06-04

How to Cite

Betancourt, J. C., & Lee, J. (2016). Mediation in England and Wales: Why should it be mandatory?. Mediation Theory and Practice, 1(1), 95–110. https://doi.org/10.1558/mtp.v1i1.28333

Issue

Section

Policy Articles