Spirituality in Forest Management

A Conceptual Framework for Empirical Research


  • Catharina de Pater Wageningen University and Research
  • Birgit Elands Wageningen University and Research
  • Bas Verschuuren Wageningen University and Research




Spiritual values, spirituality, forests, sustainable forest management, family resemblance approach, dimensions of religion, nature experience


International forest policies are increasingly recognizing spiritual values as criteria for sustainable forest management. However, knowledge on how spiritual values are articulated in practice is scarce. Because most evidence remains anecdotal, the study of spiritual values in forest management remains unsystematized and under-theorized. Research is complicated by the widely diverging interpretations of the concept of spirituality in relation to forests. Drawing upon Saler’s family resemblances approach (2000 [1993]) and the dimensions of religion posed by Smart (1996, 2002), a framework with seven dimensions is proposed. The framework structures spiritual phenomena relevant to forest management so that they can be studied systematically. It attempts to accommodate the various ontologies and epistemologies connected to spirituality in forest management. We discuss the pros and cons of the framework and make recommendations for its application in the analysis of forest management plans and practices. 

Author Biographies

Birgit Elands, Wageningen University and Research

Assistant Professor, Forest and Nature Conservation Policy Chair Group

Bas Verschuuren, Wageningen University and Research

Lecturer, Forest and Nature Conservation Policy Chair Group


Agnoletti, Mauro, and Antonio Santoro. 2015. ‘Cultural Values and Sustainable Forest Management: The Case of Europe’, Journal of Forest Resources 20: 438-44.

Alston, William P. 1967. ‘Religion’, in P. Edwards (ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Vol. 7 (New York: Macmillan): 366-73.

Anderson, Gene N. 1996. Ecologies of the Heart: Emotion, Belief and the Environment (New York: Oxford University Press). Doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780195090109.001.0001.

Andeweg, Hans A.C. 2011. Scheppend Leven: Over de grondbeginselen van energetisch beheer (Cothen: Felix).

Arts, Bas, and Ingrid Visseren-Hamakers. 2012. ‘Forest Governance: A State of the Art Review’, in B. Arts et al. (eds.), Forest-People Interfaces: Understanding Community Forestry and Biocultural Diversity (Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers): 241-57. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3920/978-90-8686-749-3.

Barbira-Freedman, Françoise. 1999. ‘“Vegetalismo” and the Perception of Biodiversity: Shamanic Values in the Peruvian Upper Amazon’, in Posey 1999: 277-78.

Bill, Lea (Rippling Water Woman). 1999. ‘Learning to Connect Spirit, Mind, Body and Heart to the Environment: A Healer’s Perspective’, in Posey 1999: 272-73.

Boyatzis, Richard E. 1998. Transforming Qualitative Information: Thematic Analysis and Code Development (London: Sage).

Brady, Emily. 2013. The Sublime in Modern Philosophy: Aesthetics, Ethics and Nature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139018098.

Brown, Steve, and Bas Verschuuren. 2019. ‘Cultural and Spiritual Signilcance of Nature in Protected and Conserved Areas: The “Deeply Seated Bond”’, in Verschuuren and Brown 2019: 1-17. Doi: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315108186-1.

Buijs, Arjen E. 2009. ‘Lay People’s Images of Nature: Comprehensive Frameworks of Values, Beliefs, and Value Orientations’, Society and Natural Resources 22.5: 417-43. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920801901335.

Bulkan, Janette. 2016. ‘Social, Cultural, and Spiritual (SCS) Needs and Values’, in J.L. Innes and A.V. Tikina (eds.), Sustainable Forest Management—from Concept to Practice (London: Routledge): 241-56.

Buzzell, Linda, and Craig Chalquist. 2009. Ecotherapy: Healing with Nature in Mind (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books).

Byrne, Denis, and Goodall, Heather. 2013. ‘Placemaking and Transnationalism: Recent Migrants and a National Park in Sydney’, PARKS 19.1: 63-72. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.CH.2013.PARKS-19-1.DB.en.

Carey, Jeremiah. 2018. ‘Spiritual, but not Religious? On the Nature of Spirituality and its Relation to Religion’, International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 83: 261-69. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11153-017-9648-8.

Chan, Kai M.A., et al. 2016. ‘Why Protect Nature? Rethinking Values and the Environment’, PNAS 113: 6.

Choné, Aurélie. 2017. ‘Ecospirituality’, in A. Choné, I. Hajek, and P. Hamman (eds.), Rethinking Nature: Challenging Disciplinary Boundaries (London: Routledge): 38-48. Doi: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315444765.

Church, Andrew, et al. 2014. UK National Ecosystem Assessment Follow-On: Work Package Report 5: Cultural Ecosystem Services and Indicators (Cambridge: UNEP-WCMC).

Cooper, Nigel, et al. 2016. ‘Aesthetic and Spiritual Values of Ecosystems: Recognising the Ontological and Axiological Plurality of Cultural Ecosystem “Services”’, Ecosystem Services 21: 218-29. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.07.014.

Crews, Chris. 2019. ‘Earthbound Social Movements and the Anthropocene’, JSRNC 13.3: 333-72. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1558/jsrnc.39633.

Daneel, Marthinus L. 2001. African Earthkeepers: Wholistic Interfaith Mission (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis). Doi: https://doi.org/10.1558/jsrnc.39633.

De Hart, Joep. 2014. Geloven binnen en buiten verband (The Hague: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau).

De Pater, Cathrien. 2005a. ‘ECOtherapy (by Hans Andeweg and Rijk Bols)’, in Taylor 2005: 563-64.

———. 2005b. ‘Poga«nik, Marko (1944–)’, in Taylor 2005: 1284-85.

———. 2015. ‘Spiritual Experiences in Nature, Eco-Friendliness and Human Well-Being’, Acta Horticulturae 1093: 169-78. Doi: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1093.19.

De Pater, Cathrien, Michael Scherer-Rath, and Frits Mertens. 2008. ‘Forest Managers' Spiritual Concerns’, Journal of Empirical Theology 21.1: 109-32. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/092229308X310768.

Dove, Michael R. 1999. ‘Forest Augury in Borneo: Indigenous Environmental Knowledge—about the Limits to Knowledge of the Environment’, in Posey 1999: 376-80.

Driver, B.L., and Icek Ajzen. 1999. ‘Research Needed on Hart-to-Delne Nature-Based Human Experiences’, in Driver et al. 1999: 431-39.

Driver, B.L., et al. (eds.). 1999. Nature and the Human Spirit: Towards an Expanded Land Management Ethic (State College, PA: Venture).

Edwards, David, Tim Collins, and Reiko Goto. 2016. ‘Does the Conservation Status of a Caledonian Forest also Indicate Cultural Ecosystem Value?’, in M. Agnoletti and F. Emanueli (eds.), Biocultural Diversity in Europe (Switzerland: Springer): 369-88. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-26315-1_20.

Elands, Birgit, and Kris S.A. Van Koppen. 2012. ‘Biocultural Diversity in the Netherlands: From Ecologically Noble Savages towards Biocultural Creatives’, in B. Arts et al. (eds.), Forest–People Interfaces: Understanding Community Forestry and Biocultural Diversity (Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers): 181-93. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3920/978-90-8686-749-3_11.

Emmons, Robert A. 2003. The Psychology of Ultimate Concern: Motivation and Spirituality in Personality (New York: Guilford).

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations). n.d. ‘Sustainable Forest Management Toolbox’. Online: http://www.fao.org/sustainable-forest-management/toolbox/en/.

Frederickson, Laura M., and Dorothy H. Anderson. 1999. ‘A Qualitative Exploration of the Wilderness Experience as a Source of Spiritual Inspiration’, Journal of Environmental Psychology 19.1: 21-39. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1006/jevp.1998.0110.

Freidel, D., Linda Schele, and Joy Parker. 2001. Maya Cosmos: Three Thousand Years of the Shaman's Path (New York: Harper).

FSC (Forest Stewardship Council). 2015. Principles and Criteria for Forest Stewardship. Online: https://ic.fsc.org/en/document-center/id/59.

Garleld, Andrew M., et al. 2014. ‘The Oneness Beliefs Scale: Connecting Spirituality with Pro-Environmental Behavior’, Journal for the Scientilc Study of Religion 5.2: 356-72. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jssr.12108.

Gilmour, Don. 2016. Forty Years of Community-based Forestry: A Review of its Extent and Effectiveness (FAO Forestry Paper, 176; Rome: Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations).

Grim, John, and Mary Evelyn Tucker. 2014. Ecology and Religion (Washington, D.C.: Island Press).

Hansen, Margaret M., Reo Jones, and Kirsten Tocchini. 2017. ‘Shinrin-Yoku (Forest Bathing) and Nature Therapy: A State-of-the-Art Review’, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14.851: 1-48. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080851.

Harmon, David, and Allen D. Putney (eds.). 2003. The Full Value of Parks: From Economics to the Intangible (Lanham: Rowman & Littleleld).

Harrison, Victoria S. 2006. ‘The Pragmatics of Delning Religion in a Multicultural World’, International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 59.3: 133-52. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11153-006-6961-z.

Harvey, Graham. 2006. Animism: Respecting the Living World (New York: Columbia University Press).

Havik, Gilles, Birgit Elands, and C.S.A. van Koppen. 2015. ‘An Encounter with One’s Deeper Self and Energy: A Phenomenological Study among Spiritually Engaged Individuals in the Netherlands’, Ecopsychology 7.2: 75-83. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1089/eco.2015.0007.

Hay, Robert. 1998. ‘A Rooted Sense of Place in Cross-cultural Perspective’, Canadian Geographer 42.3: 245-66. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1998.tb01894.x.

Hedlund-de Witt, Annick. 2011. ‘The Rising Culture and Worldview of Contemporary Spirituality: A Sociological Study of Potentials and Pitfalls for Sustainable Development’, Ecological Eonomics 70.6: 1057-65. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2011.01.020.

———. 2013. ‘Pathways to Environmental Responsibility: A Qualitative Exploration of the Spiritual Dimension of Nature Experience’, JSRNC 7.2: 154-86. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1558/jsrnc.v7i2.154.

Heelas, Paul, and Linda Woodhead. 2005. Spiritual Revolution: Why Religion is Giving Way to Spirituality (Malden: Blackwell).

Heiltsuk Tribal Council. n.d. Culture. Online: http://www.heiltsuknation.ca/about-2/heiltsuk-culture/.

Heintzman, Paul. 2009. ‘Nature-Based Recreation and Spirituality: A Complex Relationship’, Leisure Sciences 32.1: 72-89. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/01490400903430897.

———. 2011. ‘Spiritual Outcomes of Wilderness Experience: A Synthesis of Recent Social Science Research’, Park Science 28.3: 89-92.

Hernandez, Nimachia. 2005. ‘Blackfoot Cosmology as Natural Philosophy’, in Taylor 2005: 202-205.

Holbraad, Martin, and Morten A. Pedersen. 2017. The Ontological Turn: An Anthropological Exposition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316218907.

Howitt, Ricgard, and Sandra Suchet-Pearson. 2006. ‘Rethinking the Building Blocks: Ontological Pluralism and the Idea of “Management”’, Geogralska Annaler, Series B: Human Geography 88.3: 323-35. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-


Interfaith Rainforest Initiative. n.d. ‘Uniting People of all Faiths to End Tropical Deforestation’. Online: https://www.interfaithrainforest.org/.

IUFRO (International Union of Forest Research Organisations). 2007. Guidelines for the Implementation of Social and Cultural Values in Sustainable Forest Management: A Scientilc Contribution to the Implementation of MCPFE–Vienna Resolution 3 (Vienna: IUFRO).

Ivakhiv, Adrian. 2005. ‘Earth Mysteries’, in Taylor 2005: 525-28.

James, George A. 2000. ‘Ethical and Religious Dimensions of Chipko Resistance’, in C. Chapple and M.E. Tucker (eds.), Hinduism and Ecology: The Intersection of Earth, Sky, and Water (Cambridge: Harvard University Press): 499-530.

James, William. 2002 [1902]. The Varieties of Religious Experience (New York: Longmans, Green & Co.; unabridged republication of 2nd edn, Mineola: Dover, 2002).

Jansen, Peter, et al. 2016. ‘In Search of Religious Elements in the Dutch Nature Policy’, JSRNC 10.1: 91-116. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1558/jsrnc.v10i1.21368.

Jay, Marion, et al. 2012. ‘Towards Access for All? Policy and Research on Access of Ethnic Minority Groups to Natural Areas in Four European Countries’, Forest Policy and Economics 19: 4-11. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2011.12.008.

Jones, Owain, and Paul Cloke. 2002. Tree Cultures: The Place of Trees and Trees in Their Place (Oxford: Berg).

Kamitsis, Ilias, and Andrew J.P. Francis. 2013. ‘Spirituality Mediates the Relationship between Engagement with Nature and Psychological Wellbeing’, Journal of Environmental Psychology 36: 136-43. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2013.07.013.

Kellert, Stephen R., and Edward O. Wilson (eds.). 1993. The Biophilia Hypothesis (Washington, D.C.: Island Press).

Knippenberg, Hans. 2015. ‘Secularization and Transformation of Religion in Post-war Europe’, in Stanley D. Brunn (ed.), The Changing World Religion Map: Sacred Places, Identities, Practices and Politics (Dordrecht: Springer): 2101-27. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9376-6_111.

Konijnendijk, Cecil. 2008. The Forest and the City: The Cultural Landscape of Urban Woodland (Dordrecht: Springer, 2nd edn).

Kooistra, Maja 2003. De kracht van bomen. Spirituele ontmoetingen tussen mens en natuur (Utrecht: Kosmos-Z&K/Servire).

Langdon, Esther Jean. 2017. ‘From rau to sares Plants: Translgurations of Shamanic Agency among the Siona Indian of Colombia’, Social Compass, International Review of Sociology of Religion 64.3: 343-59. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0037768617713654.

Lewis, John L., and Stephen R.J. Sheppard. 2005. ‘Ancient Values, New Challenges: Indigenous Spiritual Perceptions of Landscapes and Forest Management’, Society and Natural Resources 18: 907-20. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920500205533.

Li, Qing. 2018. Shinrin-yoku. The Art and Science of Forest-Bathing (London: Penguin).

List, Peter, and Perry Brown. 1999. ‘Moving Toward and Expanded Land Management Ethic’, in Driver et al. 1999: 457-65.

Mafl, Louisa. 2007. ‘Biocultural Diversity and Sustainability’, in J. Pretty et al. (eds.), The Sage Handbook of Evironment and Society (Los Angeles: Sage Publications): 267-76. Doi: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781848607873.n18.

McFague, Sallie, 2000. ‘An Ecological Christology: Does Christianity Have it?’, in D.T. Hessel and R. Radford Ruether (eds.), Christianity and Ecology: Seeking the Well-Being of Earth and Humans (Cambridge: Harvard University Press): 29-45.

MCPFE (Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe). 2002. Improved Pan-European Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management as adopted by the MCPFE Expert Level Meeting 7–8 October 2002, Vienna, Austria (Vienna: Vienna Liaison Oflce).

MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment). 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis (Washington, D.C.: Island Press).

Muhar, Andreas, et al. 2017. ‘A Model Integrating Social-Cultural Concepts of Nature into Frameworks of Interaction between Social and Natural Systems’, Journal of Environmental Planning & Management 23: 1-22.

Nugteren, Albertina. 2005. Belief, Bounty and Beauty. Rituals around Sacred Trees in India (Leiden: Brill). Doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789047415619.

———. 2018. ‘Consolation and the “Poetics” of the Soil in Natural Burial Sites’, in C. Jedan, A. Maddrell, and E. Venbrux (eds.), Consolationscapes in the Face of Loss: Grief and Consolation in Space and Time (New York: Routledge): 63-78. Doi: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780815358800-4.

Otto, Rudolf. 1958 [1917]. The Idea of the Holy: An Inquiry into the Non-rational Factor in the Idea of the Divine and its Relation to the Rational (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Paaskoski, Lena. 2010. The Reuse of Forest Professionals’ Life Stories: Forest Professionals in the Changing Society—Oral History Project 1999–2002 (Punkaharju, Finland: Lusto/Finnish Oral History Network).

Parkes, Graham. 2003. ‘Winds, Waters and Earth Energies: Fengshui and Sense of Place’, in H. Selin and A. Kalland (eds.), Nature across Cultures: Views of Nature and the Environment in Non-western Cultures (Dordrecht: Kluwer): 185-209. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-0149-5_10.

Pascual, Unai, et al. 2017. ‘Valuing Nature’s Contributions to People: The IPBES Approach’, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 26–27: 7-16. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2016.12.006.

Pedroli, Bas, and Roel During. 2019. The Paradox of ‘Makeable Nature’—Ingrained and Controversial: The Signilcance of Cultural Identity in Public Support for Nature Policy and Management (Wot Technical Report, 166; Wageningen: Statutory Research Task Unit for Nature and the Environment).

PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certilcation schemes). 2018. Sustainable Forest Management—Requirements. PEFC ST 1003:2018. Online: https://www.ifcc-ksk.org/documents/documents/PEFC_ST_1003.2018_ (SustainableForestManagement%E2%80%93Requirements).pdf.

Pogacnik, Marko. 2007. Sacred Geography. Geomancy: Co-Creating the Earth Cosmos (Great Barrington: Lindisfarne Books).

Pope Francis. 2015. Encyclical Letter Laudato Si’ of the Holy Father Francis on Care for Our Common Home. Online: http://w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/encyclicals/documents/papa-francesco_20150524_enciclica-laudato-si.html.

Posey, D.A. (ed.). 1999. Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity (Nairobi: Intermediate Technology Publications/UNEP). Doi: https://doi.org/10.3362/9781780445434.

Pretty, Jules, et al. 2009. ‘The Intersections of Biological Diversity and Cultural Diversity: Towards Integration’, Conservation and Society 7.2: 100-112. Doi: https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-4923.58642.

Raymond, Christopher M., Marketta Kyttä, and Richard Stedman. 2017. ‘Sense of Place, Fast and Slow: The Potential Contributions of Affordance Theory to Sense of Place’, Frontiers in Psychology 8.1674: 1-14. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01674.

Redmond, Louis. 1999. ‘Diverse Native American Perspectives on the Use of Sacred Areas on Public Lands’, in Driver et al. 1999: 127-33.

Reichel, Elisabeth. 1992. ‘Shamanistic Modes for Environmental Accounting in the Colombian Amazon: Lessons from Indigenous Ethno-ecology for Sustainable Development’. Presented at International Symposium on Indigenous Knowledge and Sustainable Development, 20–26 September 1992 (Silang: International Institute of Rural Reconstruction). Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/02604020590902362.

Roberts, Elizabeth. 1999. ‘Place and Spirit in Public Land Management’, in Driver et al. 1999: 61-80.

Roncken, Paul A. 2018. ‘Shades of Sublime: A Design for Landscape Experiences as an Instrument in the Making of Meaning’ (PhD thesis, Wageningen: Wageningen University). Doi: https://doi.org/10.18174/427612.

Saler, Benson. 2000 [1993]. Conceptualizing Religion: Immanent Anthropologists, Transcendent Natives, and Unbounded Categories (New York: Berghahn Books).

Satterleld, Terra. 2002. Anatomy of a Conmict: Identity, Knowledge, and Emotion in Old-Growth Forests (Vancouver: UBC Press).

Smart, Ninian. 1973. The Science of Religion & the Sociology of Knowledge: Some Methodological Questions (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

———. 1996. Dimensions of the Sacred: An Anatomy of the World's Beliefs (Berkeley: University of California Press).

———. 2002. The World's Religions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2nd edn).

Snodgrass, Jeffrey G., and Kristina Tiedje. 2008. ‘Indigenous Nature Reverence and Conservation: Seven Ways of Transcending an Unnecessary Dichotomy’, JSRNC 2.1: 6-29. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1558/jsrnc.v2i1.6.

Southwold, Martin. 1978. ‘Buddhism and the Delnition of Religion’, Man 13.3: 362-79. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/2801935.

Sponsel, Leslie E. 2012. Spiritual Ecology: A Quiet Revolution (Santa Barbara: Praeger).

Studley, John, and Peter Horsley. 2019. ‘Spiritual Governance as an Indigenous Behavioural Practice: Implications for Protected and Conserved Areas’, in Verschuuren and Brown 2019: 72-84. Doi: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315108186-5.

Summers, James K., and Deborah N. Vivian. 2018. ‘Ecotherapy: A Forgotten Ecosystem Service: A Review’, Frontiers in Psychology 9.1389: 1-14. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01389.

Taylor, Bron. 2007. ‘Exploring Religion, Nature and Culture: Introducing the Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture’, JSRNC 1.1: 5-24. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1558/jsrnc.v1i1.5.

———. 2010a. Dark Green Religion: Nature Spirituality and the Planetary Future (Berkeley: University of California Press).

———. 2010b. ‘Dark Green Religion: Nature Spirituality and the Planetary Future: Chapter 1, Additional Notes’. Online: http://www.brontaylor.com/environmental_books/dgr/chapter1.html#3.

———. 2016. ‘The Greening of Religion Hypothesis (Part One): From Lynn White, Jr and Claims That Religions Can Promote Environmentally Destructive Attitudes and Behaviors to Assertions They Are Becoming Environmentally Friendly’, JSRNC 10.3: 268-305. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1558/jsrnc.v10i3.29010.

Taylor, Bron (ed.). 2005. Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature (London: Thoemnes Continuum).

Taylor, Bron, Gretel Van Wieren, and Bernard Zaleha. 2016. ‘The Greening of Religion Hypothesis (Part Two): Assessing the Data from Lynn White, Jr, to Pope Francis’, JSRNC 10.3: 306-78. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1558/jsrnc.v10i3.29011.

Terhaar, Terry. 2009. ‘Evolutionary Advantages of Intense Spiritual Experience in Nature’, JSRNC 3.3: 303-39. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1558/jsrnc.v3i3.303.

Timko, Joleen, and Jaime Revenaz Webbe. 2020. Indigenous Forest Governance: Challenges, Enabling Conditions and Factors for Success (Vancouver: Canadian International Resources and Development Institute, University of British Columbia).

Trosper, Ronald A., and John A. Parrotta. 2012. ‘The Growing Importance of Traditional Forest-Related Knowledge’, in J.A. Parrotta and R.L. Trosper (eds.), Traditional Forest-Related Knowledge: Sustaining Communities, Ecosystems and Biocultural Diversity (Dordrecht: Springer): 1-36. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-2144-9_1.

UNESCO. n.d. ‘Heritage of Religious Interest: UNESCO Initiative on Heritage of Religious Interest’. Online: https://whc.unesco.org/en/religious-sacred-heritage/.

Van den Berg, Agnes E. 2017. ‘From Green Space to Green Prescriptions: Challenges and Opportunities for Research and Practice’, Frontiers in Psychology 8.268: 1-4. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00268.

Van Trigt, Alexandra, Kris van Koppen, and Heiner Schanz. 2003. ‘Spirituele waarden van natuur; een analyse van spiritualiteit in relatie tot bomen en bos’, Landschap 20.3: 155-63.

Vellema, Hans, and Jelle Maas. 2003. A Conceptual Framework for Forest Management Plans. Paper Submitted to the XII World Forestry Congress, Québec City, Canada. Document no. 0579-B4. Online: http://www.fao.org/docrep/ARTICLE/WFC/XII/0579-B4.HTM.

Verschuuren, Bas, and Steve Brown. 2019. ‘Remections on the Situational and Relational Contexts of Cultural and Spiritual Signilcance of Nature in Protected and Conserved Areas’, in Verschuuren and Brown 2019: 292-306. Doi: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315108186-20.

Verschuuren, Bas et al. 2021. Cultural and Spiritual Signilcance of Nature: Guidance for Protected and Conserved Area Governance and Management (Gland: IUCN). Doi: https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.CH.2021.PAG.32.en.

Verschuuren, B., and S. Brown (eds.). 2019. Cultural and Spiritual Signilcance of Nature in Protected Areas: Governance, Management and Policy (Abingdon: Routledge). Doi: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315108186.

Von Stuckrad, Kocku. 2003. ‘Discursive Study of Religion: From States of the Mind to Communication and Action’, Method and Theory in the Study of Religion 15: 255-71. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/157006803322393387.

Waaijman, Kees. 2001. Spiritualiteit; vormen, grondslagen, methoden (Kampen: Kok, 2nd edn).

White, Lynn Townsend Jr. 1967. ‘The Historical Roots of our Ecological Crisis’, Science 155: 1203-207. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.155.3767.1203.

Wiersum, K. Freerk, and Roger Sands. 2013. ‘Social Forestry’, in R. Sands (ed.), Forestry in a Global Context (Wallingford: CABI): 185-217. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1079/9781780641560.0185.

Wild, Robert, and Christopher McLeod (eds.). 2008. Sacred Natural Sites: Guidelines for Protected Area Managers (Gland: IUCN). Doi: https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.CH.2008.PAG.16.en.

Williams, Kathryn, and David Harvey. 2001. ‘Transcendent Experience in Forest Environments’, Journal of Environmental Psychology 21: 249-60. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1006/jevp.2001.0204.

York, Michael. 2005. ‘Geomancy’, in Taylor 2005: 692-93.

Znamenski, Andrew A. 2007. The Beauty of the Primitive: Shamanism and the Western Imagination (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Zylstra, Matthew J. 2019. ‘Meaningful Nature Experiences: Pathways for Deepening Connections between People and Place’, in Verschuuren and Brown 2019: 40-57. Doi: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315108186-3.

Zylstra, Matthew J., Karen Esler, Andrew Knight, and Lesley Le Grange. 2018. 'Integrating Multiple Perspectives on the Human–Nature Relationship: A Reply to Fletcher 2016’, The Journal of Environmental Education.

Zylstra, Matthew J., et al. 2014. ‘Connectedness as a Core Conservation Concern: An Interdisciplinary Review of Theory and a Call for Practice’, Springer Science Reviews 2014.2: 119-43. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40362-014-0021-3.



How to Cite

de Pater, C. ., Elands, B. ., & Verschuuren, B. . (2021). Spirituality in Forest Management: A Conceptual Framework for Empirical Research. Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture, 15(2), 204–228. https://doi.org/10.1558/jsrnc.41999