Journal of Multilingual Theories and Practices showcases diverse perspectives and methodologies in the research of multilingualism. Equinox Publishing Ltd. en-US Journal of Multilingual Theories and Practices 2632-4490 <p>© Equinox Publishing Ltd.</p> <p>For information regarding our Open Access policy, <a title="Open access policy." href="Full%20details of our conditions related to copyright can be found by clicking here.">click here</a>.</p> Editorial Piotr Romanowski Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 1 1 1 3 10.1558/jmtp.17670 Null results in bilingualism research <p>The controversy over whether bilingualism has consequences for mind and brain shows no sign of abating. A steady stream of research reporting both positive results supporting the claim for beneficial effects of bilingualism and null results finding no significant differences between monolingual and bilingual groups continues to be published. With the number of null results that are produced, it is tempting to conclude that the positive effects are not reliable and that there is in fact no effect of bilingualism. However, research results, both positive and null, need to be interpreted in the larger context of factors that describe the experimental paradigm, the linguistic context, and the individual differences of the participants and not reduced to a simple binary question. The present article discusses some of the factors that must be considered in evaluating the interpretation of these research results.</p> Ellen Bialystok Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 1 1 8 22 10.1558/jmtp.17104 Towards multilingualism <p>There has been a development in both scholarly and popular attention to language capabilities and their alleged cognitive consequences. Emphasis, both theoretical and applied, was initially given to monolingual fluencies. Indeed, the sense that monolingualism is still somehow the default norm remains in some ‘large-language’ contexts. A second stage, as it were, arose when serious consideration began to be given to bilingualism—a phase surely long overdue, given the real-life circumstances that have always prevailed around the world. One of the most interesting aspects of this phase has been the apparent empirical demonstration that bilingualism correlates with cognitive advantage. Although this seems a welcome corrective to earlier and quite opposite views, the evidence turns out to be far from unequivocal. It now appears likely that, while expanded linguistic repertoires are of course beneficial, there are no simple correspondences between languages known and cognitive capacities. Research on bilingualism and multilingualism, at both individual and social levels, is now routine.</p> John Edwards Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 1 1 23 43 10.1558/jmtp.16682 Making music, making language <p>This article reframes how the making of music by minoritized bilingual Latinx<br />children is interrelated to their languaging and their literacies’ performances.<br />Taking a translanguaging approach, musicking/languaging/performing literacies are described here as holistic critical meaning-making processes. Focusing on the process by which students make meaning of texts, and not simply on the output or product of such meaning-making, this article shows how a music education programme based on El Sistema and designed for social change transforms minoritized children’s critical sense of their positions and subjectivities as producers of language and literacies. Through music education, long considered only an enrichment activity from which language minoritized students are often excluded, bilingual Latinx children are able to crack open a vision for themselves and others as competent, dignified, and valid meaning-makers—as performers of complex acts of language and literacies.</p> Ofelia Garcia Angélica Ortega Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 1 1 44 65 10.1558/jmtp.16529 Multilingual awareness and metacognition in multilingually diverse classrooms <p>Research interest in multilingual development and multilingual awareness (MLA) has been growing over the last years, and MLA has been defined as a key component of multilingual learning and multiple language use. The first part of the article focuses on the development of MLA in learners as a subcomponent of metacognition and a key factor of emergent properties in multilinguals as presented from a dynamic systems and complexity theory perspective in the Dynamic Model of Multilingualism (DMM) (Herdina and Jessner, 2002). The second part describes a DMM-based language teaching and learning approach, the Five Building Blocks of Holistic Language Education/Learning, which visualises the relationship between linguistic and cognitive processes and enables teachers and learners to reflect on language acquisition and use in order to develop MLA.</p> Ulrike Jessner Elisabeth Allgäuer-Hackl Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 1 1 66 88 10.1558/jmtp.17285 What’s in the family app? <p>Communication within contemporary families is increasingly and to a significant<br />extent mediated through technological devices and digital applications.<br />Although the everyday reality of many multilingual families is permeated by technology, research on their digital and language practices has been scant. This article argues for the need for eclectic approaches that draw upon theories, practices, and findings from research on transnational families and migration, digitally mediated family communication, parental mediation, multilingualism online, and family multilingualism and language transmission. Two empirical case studies are presented on multilingual family constellations in Finland in which the instant messaging application WhatsApp was used to create space to sustain transnational family relationships, to negotiate about agency, to create cultural identity and group membership, as well as to practise and develop literacy. Whereas previous research has focused on digital practices in families, on multilingual practices on internet platforms, or on language transmission processes in families, we argue that future research should focus more on the digital multilingual family and explore the role of languages as embedded in digital media activities and interwoven in everyday family life.</p> Åsa Palviainen Joanna Kędra Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 1 1 89 111 10.1558/jmtp.15363 Adults learning additional languages in their later years <p>This article will explore the experience—challenges, benefits, and satisfactions— that awaits older adults who embark on the adventure of learning additional languages, either as ‘true’ or ‘false’ beginners, or in some cases as resilient lifelong (foreign language) learners (to be distinguished from polyglots). Drawing on the increasing number of studies focusing on third-age language learning, the article will address the self-doubt afflicting many third-age language learners and the difficulties claimed to be imposed on them by the effects of an age-related decline in language-learning capacity. It will go on to discuss the benefits that are said to accrue for older learners of languages other than their first. Finally, it will address and exemplify from our own data the intense enjoyment which many older adults derive from language learning.</p> David Singleton Dorota Záborská Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 1 1 112 124 10.1558/jmtp.15361 Where are the new languages? <p>The use of the ecology metaphor is widespread in language studies, particularly in discussions about language policy and planning and minority language maintenance. Attributed to Haugen (1972), the metaphor emphasises the context in which languages are used, providing a holistic view of language and communication practices in a particular environment. Some authors link language diversity explicitly to environmental protection, noting that biodiversity coincides with language diversity (Krauss, 1992; Nettle and Romaine, 2000; Skutnab-Kangas, Maffi, and Harmon, 2003). The ecology metaphor seems to be linked mainly to the conservation of minoritized languages. In this article the argument is put forward that we need to recognise the limits of this metaphor where newly emerging languages are concerned. The implicit metaphor in the term ‘language ecology’ depends on an understanding of the natural world, so it can be argued that just as new species and new habitats are being discovered in the natural world, new languages should be acknowledged as part of the language landscape. Using the example of Sepitori and other urban varieties in South Africa, the article supports the recognition of newly emerging languages because it has important implications for education and for the potential of translanguaging classroom practices.</p> Christa Van der Walt Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 1 1 125 148 10.1558/jmtp.17094 Introduction Britta Hufeisen Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 1 1 4 7 10.1558/jmtp.17695