Journal of Multilingual Theories and Practices 2021-05-04T15:08:39+00:00 Piotr Romanowski Open Journal Systems <p>The aim of this peer-reviewed international journal is to showcase diverse perspectives and methodologies in the research of multilingualism. Studies published in the journal are motivated theoretically, focused on significant issues, rigorous in both methods and argumentation. <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Read more</a>.</p> Examinations in Singapore’s bilingual policy 2020-10-21T15:52:20+00:00 Cher Leng Lee Chiew Pheng Phua <p>Singapore is a multiracial nation with three-quarters of the population comprised of ethnic Chinese people. The nation’s ‘English-knowing’ bilingual policy has resulted in a steady decline in Mandarin competency, causing much concern. While agreeing that prestige planning (related to the perceived status of the language) is lacking in Chinese language education in Singapore, some suggest that Singapore can leverage China’s economic success or strengthen the Chinese curriculum to arrest the problem. An understanding of the historical developments behind Chinese language policies is necessary to grasp the link between prestige planning and language-in-education in Singapore. This paper adopts a historical approach to show how examinations have been used as essential tools in Singapore’s meritocratic society to adjust the requirements of Chinese language education, directly affecting the learning of Mandarin and resulting in a shift from prestige planning to image planning (which relates to language identity). The primary sources used in this paper include transcripts of Parliamentary debates and reports from leading newspapers, both English and Chinese, which are critical to understanding the rationale of language policies.</p> 2021-05-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. A LangCrit analysis of teachers’ beliefs about language learning and language diversity 2021-03-25T12:01:58+00:00 Christina L. Dobbs Christine Montecillo Leider <p>Research has suggested that teachers’ beliefs about multilingual learners directly impact their instructional practices, and teacher educators have called for more explicit focus on addressing beliefs related to language learning and multilingual learners in teacher training programmes. Drawing from LangCrit theory, we analysed 15 early-career teachers’ beliefs about language learning. All participants were enrolled in a teacher education programme and taking a state mandated course focused on teaching multilingual learners. At the start of the course, after completing modified versions of the Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) and the Language Attitudes Teacher Survey (LATS), participants were asked to identify survey items that represented truths or myths of bilingualism and to reflect on their own beliefs about the topic and how those beliefs were formed. We utilised positioning theory and LangCrit theory to make meaning of participant responses. Findings suggest that participants were likely to select similar items for reflection. Additionally, their responses connected to their personal experiences of language learning in their own lives or previous classroom experiences. In line with LangCrit theory, participant responses connected their individual stories to broader discourses and emphasised socially bounded hierarchies and the dominance of English as a teaching goal. However, responses rarely addressed how language diversity is related to race or racism. Implications for teacher beliefs, particularly with regard to teacher education and policy, are discussed.</p> 2021-05-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Social and other nonlinguistic dimensions of grassroots heritage language community groups 2020-04-15T09:15:21+00:00 Martin Guardado <p>In this article, I focus on the different roles that self-formed ethnic community groups play in the heritage language socialisation of Hispanic families. The article is based on an ethnographic study conducted in La Casa Amistad, a small group of middle-class Hispanic families living in Vancouver, Canada. The analysis focuses on the different ways in which membership in the group supported the families in their goals to raise multilingual children, and on how the group became a bridge that connected likeminded parents who shared a similar culture as well as language beliefs, values and practices. Group participation also provided a safe environment where members reported feeling a sense of belonging. In this manner, such supportive and non-threatening environment functioned like a surrogate extended family</p> 2021-05-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Ideological and implementational spaces in Covid-era language policy and planning 2021-04-09T20:27:36+00:00 Nancy H. Hornberger <p>The ongoing global pandemic exacerbates, but does not initiate, longstanding language policy and planning (LPP) concerns around the ways language education policies and practices sustain inequalities across linguistic and social identities. Elsewhere, I have argued there is an urgent need for language users, educators and researchers to counter those inequalities, filling up and wedging open ideological and implementational spaces for multiple languages, literacies, identities and practices to flourish in classroom, community and society. Here, using the lens of layered, scaled and interacting implementational and ideological spaces and focusing on cases of Indigenous education in the Andes and Mexico, I explore how ethnographic studies uncover intertwining LPP dynamics that might be leveraged to promote social change in the Covid heightened context of inequality. For example, potential equality and actual inequality of languages intertwine in Mexican education policy and practice to interrupt spaces for Maya language in a Yucatec Mayan Indigenous preschool, and intertwining monoglossic and heteroglossic language ideologies in the discourse of Indigenous leaders of Ecuador’s bilingual intercultural education reveal tensions negotiated in the politics of Kichwa identity and language across spaces like ministry offices, bilingual classrooms or official translation workshops. Meanwhile, top-down and bottom-up LPP activities intertwining in Peruvian bilingual education are leveraged locally to create transformational spaces for Quechua youth to acquire and use their heritage language in multimodal ways, and critical and transformative LPP research paradigms intertwine in an ethnographic project examining how higher education administrators, teachers and students collaborate to create new spaces for Indigenous language learning in Diidxazá/Isthmus Zapotec classes in Oaxaca, Mexico. How might these dynamic LPP ideological and implementational spaces be leveraged to confront the ever-greater inequities wrought by Covid in Indigenous educational access and ways of speaking and being?</p> 2021-05-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. Popular children’s songs and the display of Italian multilingualism in Australia 2021-02-28T18:02:52+00:00 Marco Santello <p>Italians in Australia have been shown to have a varied linguistic repertoire, due to the presence of a high number of regional languages/dialects spoken in Italy, which they brought with them upon migration. Yet, their own efforts to bring attention to their multilingualism have not been fully explored. This article examines an audiocassette recording of a collection of children’s songs produced at the end of the 1970s by an Italo-Australian association for local circulation. It focuses on the design of the audiocassette cover and the range of regional languages/dialects of the songs in the collection, showing how (often mixed-language) texts and images aid language display. The results bring to the surface a deliberate effort to shed light on the rich multilingualism of Italy, which is consistent with the changing role of community languages in the period when this audiocassette was produced. These Italians in Australia make visible their multilingualism, presenting a range of regional languages/dialects also through their use in traditional songs, thereby showing another way in which multilingualism can be acknowledged and valued.</p> 2021-05-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd. ‘It’s not from a textbook, it’s from your real life’ 2021-01-01T12:47:29+00:00 Mila Schwartz Michal Chana Segev <p>This paper sets out to investigate teachers as agents in Israel, comparing Israeli born teachers with those who had past immigration experiences, regarding their attitudes toward multilingual students, personal practical knowledge and classroom practices in this field. In this study, we applied linguistic ethnography to elicit attitudinal and personal information from 20 inservice teachers. We collected participants’ data via semistructured interviews and entered additional (e.g., nonverbal) information in a researcher’s journal. We performed discourse analysis and thematic analysis to identify significant themes and indicate contributors to teachers’ agency. Data indicated attitudinal differences between immigrant and Israeli-born teachers. Immigrant teachers were found to possess personal practical knowledge that originated in their past immigration experiences. Based on this, they were able to form personal connections with immigrant students and employ diverse techniques that improved their teaching in multilingual classes. This study proposes a model of immigrant teachers’ agency shaped by teachers’ attitudes toward multilingual students in interaction with their personal practical knowledge and expressed in their classroom practices and affective behaviours. The conclusions from the study may contribute to developing teacher-training and innovative teaching techniques.</p> 2021-05-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Equinox Publishing Ltd.