Journal of Monolingual and Bilingual Speech <p><img src="/public/site/images/janet/JMBS-2631-8407-large_(2).jpg">&nbsp;This journal studies human speech in all its manifestations. The average person in today's world speaks at least one native language in its standard and/or dialectal forms and speaks at various levels of proficiency at least one more languge that is acquired simultaneously or consecutively in instructional or immersion settings. The term speech is used here to mean oral rather than written language and is an umbrella term to refer both to the physical aspects of the ability to speak/communicate as well as the cognitive aspects involved in the human linguistic faculty. Gestural (sign) language, i,e, the language of manual communication is known to display, by and large, the same fundamental properties as spoken language, and as such is a type of speech.</p> Equinox Publishing Ltd. en-US Journal of Monolingual and Bilingual Speech 2631-8407 <p>© Equinox Publishing Ltd.</p> <p>For information regarding our Open Access policy, <a title="Open access policy." href="Full%20details of our conditions related to copyright can be found by clicking here.">click here</a>.</p> Bulgarian Consonant Acquisition in Preschoolers with Typical versus Protracted Phonological Development <p>Previous research on Bulgarian consonant acquisition reports earlier acquisition of stops, nasals and glides than fricatives, affricates and liquids. The current study expands the investigation of Bulgarian consonant acquisition. The primary objective was to identify characteristics of protracted versus typical phonological development (PPD versus TD) relative to consonant match (accuracy) levels and mismatch patterns. A native speaker audio-recorded and transcribed single-word productions (110-word list) of sixty 3- to 5-year-olds (30 TD, 30 PPD). Another two transcribers confirmed transcriptions using acoustic analysis for disambiguation. Data generally confirmed previous findings regarding the order of consonant acquisition. Factors characteristic of PPD in comparison with TD were: lower match levels, especially at age 3 for onsets in unstressed syllables: later mastery of laterals; and a greater proportion and range of mismatch patterns, including deletion and more than one feature mismatch per segment (e.g., Manner &amp; Place). The paper concludes with clinical and research implications.</p> Barbara May Bernhardt D. Ignatova W. Amoako N. Aspinall S. Marinova-Todd J. P. Stemberger K. Yokota Copyright (c) 2019 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2019-11-05 2019-11-05 1 2 143–181 143–181 10.1558/jmbs.v1i2.11801 Past Participle Agreement in Codeswitching Contexts <p>In this work we will test the ability of nominal gender to be ‘infinitely reusable as an “active goal” for the operation Agree’ (Carstens, 2010) in mixed Italian/ English clauses. In particular, we will analyse long-distance gender relations that are realised outside the DP domain in compound ergative clauses, where an Italian ergative past participle must agree in gender (and number) with the DP-syntactic subject: specifically, the ‘active goal’ for the operation Agree may be either a monolingual English DP or a mixed DP. Moreover, the mixed ergative clauses will be embedded under an English or an Italian matrix clause, in order to see if the language of the latter affects acceptability judgements. Crucially, we aimed to assess which mixed agreement patterns are preferred in codeswitching contexts, as well as the role played by the language of the matrix clause. Furthermore, we have tested and shown to what extent the Matrix Language Framework is adequate to account for the acceptability of the various mixed combinations.</p> Gloria Cocchi Cristina Pierantozzi Copyright (c) 2019 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2019-11-05 2019-11-05 1 2 182–205 182–205 10.1558/jmbs.v1i2.11802 Lexical Development in Bilingual French/ Portuguese Speaking Toddlers <p>In this study, we explore if French-European Portuguese (EP)-speaking bilingual toddlers produce the same number of words as their monolingual peers, in French, in EP, or in both languages. Furthermore, we explore the link between language dominance and lexicon size. We tested 53 bilingual French-EP children, among which 16 were 16–18 months old, 16 were 24–25 months old and 21 were 30–35 months old. The parents completed the French and the EP Communicative Development Inventory (adaptations of MacArthur–Bates CDI [Fenson et al., 2007]), the PaBiQ (Tuller, 2015) to evaluate language dominance and the ASQ-3 (Squires et al., 2009) to assess their developmental stages. The total vocabulary (both language combined, TV?F+EP), the total vocabulary (TV) in each language (TV?EP and TV?F) and the conceptual vocabulary (CV) were calculated. These vocabulary measures were compared with the monolingual norms in French and EP. The results showed that almost all participants had the same performance in vocabulary acquisition as their monolingual peers in French and EP, measured through the CDI in each language respectively. Their TV?F+EP and CV exceeded the vocabulary of monolinguals and language dominance was correlated with vocabulary size.</p> Sophie Kern Daniela Valente Christophe dos Santos Copyright (c) 2019 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2019-11-06 2019-11-06 1 2 206–224 206–224 10.1558/jmbs.v1i2.11880 Grammatical Gender in Atypical Language Development <p>We use code-switched structures to investigate how gender is represented in the mind of an adult English-Spanish bilingual (Spanish is the Heritage language) who has Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a genetic disorder that presents both behavioral disturbances and intellectual and linguistic disabilities. The latter remains entirely unexplored in the case of bilingual speakers. Previous research (Liceras et al., 2016) using an Acceptability Judgment Task (AJT) and a Sentence Completion Task (SCT) has shown that typically-developing (TD) Spanish-dominant English-Spanish bilinguals (but not English-dominant bilinguals) prefer gender-matching switched Determiner+Noun (concord) and Subject+Adjectival Predicate (agreement) structures, as La[theF] house[casaF] or The house[la casaF] es roja[is redF] over non-matching ones, as El[theM] house[casaF] or The house[la casaF] es rojo[is redM], which means that these bilinguals abide by the so- called ‘analogical criterion’ (AC): they assign English Nouns the gender of their translation equivalent in Spanish. These same two tasks were administered to a 34 year-old male English-Spanish bilingual (English dominant) with PWS. The results show that in the AJT, he rates both matching and non-matching concord and agreement structures high but has a stronger preference for all structures that abide by the AC. In the SCT, he unambiguously abides by the AC with both types of structures as TD Spanish-dominant bilinguals do. These results constitute a first step towards investigating which linguistic abilities may be compromised in the case of the PWS population and provide evidence that bilingualism does not seem to have a negative effect on the activation of formal features in their grammars.</p> Juana M. Liceras Estela Garcia-Alcaraz Copyright (c) 2019 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2019-11-05 2019-11-05 1 2 225–247 225–247 10.1558/jmbs.v1i2.11878 Learning the Plural from Variable Input <p>Natural languages frequently display both consistent and variable morphological patterns. Previous studies have indicated that variable morphological patterns are mastered more slowly than consistent ones. In particular, it has been argued that Chilean children, who are exposed to variable plural-marking, take longer to consistently associate the plural marker to a more-than-one interpretation than children who are exposed to non-variable plural-marking (e.g. children from Mexico City). Building on this previous work, the present study assesses Chilean children’s ability to associate the plural marker to a more-than-one interpretation in both an act-out task and an eye-tracking task, in order to compare performance across different contexts and between offline and real-time comprehension, and to enrich our understanding of the acquisition of variable morphology.</p> Cynthia Lukyanenko Karen Miller Copyright (c) 2019 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2019-11-05 2019-11-05 1 2 248–279 248–279 10.1558/jmbs.v1i2.11788 The Linguistic Construction of Identity by Bilinguals Who Stutter <p>This study’s aim was to investigate the self-perceptions of bilingual people<br>who stutter as uncovered by their word choices during social interaction.<br>Specifically, the perceptions they have about themselves relative to their stuttering are examined using qualitative methods. Three bilingual males who stutter were recruited from stuttering support groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit participants’ perspectives on their stuttering experiences. Tools derived from Systemic Functional Linguistic (SFL) theory were used to analyse interview transcripts revealing how participants use linguistic resources to appraise, organise and convey their identities relative to their stuttering. SFL-based analyses revealed individual topics in each participant’s talk including: being prideful about stuttering out of necessity, shifting identity based on views about stuttering, and adopting various identities depending on social context. Analysis of word selections and clause structures revealed that all three participants project a positive identity relative to their stuttering, though they still struggle with negative feelings.</p> Angela Medina John A. Tetnowski Nicole Müller Copyright (c) 2019 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2019-11-05 2019-11-05 1 2 280–311 280–311 10.1558/jmbs.v1i2.11879 On the Interpretation of Null Arguments in L2 Japanese by L1 German Speakers <p>We report that (i) L1 German learners of Japanese as a foreign language allowed a sloppy interpretation of null arguments in the course of their L2 development, and that (ii) the sloppy interpretation between the L1 German group and the Japanese control group was, statistically, significantly different. Under Ishino’s (2012) Feature Transfer and Feature Learning model on second language acquisition (SLA) which we adopt, it is not immediately clear what type of null arguments the L1 German learners permit in their L2 Japanese. We argue that L1 German learners of L2 Japanese adopt German verbatim topic drop (Trutkowski, 2016) to make sloppy interpretation of null arguments available in their Japanese, an instance of L1 transfer. The current proposal is consistent with Yamada and Miyamoto’s (2017) finding that null arguments available in the L2 Japanese grammar of other European non-pro-drop language speakers do not permit sloppy interpretation, for verbatim topic drop is an operation specific to German.</p> Yoichi Miyamoto Kazumi Yamada Copyright (c) 2019 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2019-11-05 2019-11-05 1 2 312–332 312–332 10.1558/jmbs.v1i2.11803 Listener Proficiency and Shared Background Effects on the Accentedness, Comprehensibility and Intelligibility of Four Varieties of English <p>This study examines the impact of Hong Kong listeners’ English language proficiency on the intelligibility and perceived accentedness and comprehensibility of speakers of English from Hong Kong, China, Singapore and the United States. The study had two main aims: (1) to examine how proficiency impacts listeners’ perceptions of how accented and comprehensible different varieties of English are and how this differs from speech intelligibility; (2) to examine whether listeners benefited from a shared background effect differently by proficiency level. The research findings have pedagogical implications as they can improve understanding of which proficiency levels may benefit most from instruction and how a shared background may mitigate proficiency effects. They also help researchers understand the extent to which listeners’ own English proficiency impacts their evaluations of the speech characteristics of other speakers of English, an area of research that is still relatively unexplored.</p> Jette G. Hansen Edwards Mary L. Zampini Caitlin Cunningham Copyright (c) 2019 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2019-11-05 2019-11-05 1 2 333–356 333–356 10.1558/jmbs.v1i2.11867