Bulgarian Consonant Acquisition in Preschoolers with Typical versus Protracted Phonological Development


  • Barbara May Bernhardt University of British Columbia
  • D. Ignatova Sofia University
  • W. Amoako University of British Columbia
  • N. Aspinall University of British Columbia
  • S. Marinova-Todd University of British Columbia
  • J. P. Stemberger University of British Columbia
  • K. Yokota University of British Columbia




Bulgarian, language development, phonological development, phonological features, phonological disorder, segmental constraints, Slavic languages, speech sound disorder


Previous research on Bulgarian consonant acquisition reports earlier acquisition of stops, nasals and glides than fricatives, affricates and liquids. The current study expands the investigation of Bulgarian consonant acquisition. The primary objective was to identify characteristics of protracted versus typical phonological development (PPD versus TD) relative to consonant match (accuracy) levels and mismatch patterns. A native speaker audio-recorded and transcribed single-word productions (110-word list) of sixty 3- to 5-year-olds (30 TD, 30 PPD). Another two transcribers confirmed transcriptions using acoustic analysis for disambiguation. Data generally confirmed previous findings regarding the order of consonant acquisition. Factors characteristic of PPD in comparison with TD were: lower match levels, especially at age 3 for onsets in unstressed syllables: later mastery of laterals; and a greater proportion and range of mismatch patterns, including deletion and more than one feature mismatch per segment (e.g., Manner & Place). The paper concludes with clinical and research implications.


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How to Cite

Bernhardt, Barbara May, D. Ignatova, W. Amoako, N. Aspinall, S. Marinova-Todd, J. P. Stemberger, and K. Yokota. 2019. “Bulgarian Consonant Acquisition in Preschoolers With Typical Versus Protracted Phonological Development”. Journal of Monolingual and Bilingual Speech 1 (2):143–181. https://doi.org/10.1558/jmbs.v1i2.11801.