Journal of Language and Discrimination <p>The journal focuses on the shaping effect of language in situations of discrimination, but&nbsp; also comprises research on language ideology and language-focused discrimination; i.e. discrimination towards a language, or towards users of a particular language variety.&nbsp;</p> Equinox Publishing Ltd. en-US Journal of Language and Discrimination 2397-2637 <p>© Equinox Publishing Ltd.</p> <p>For information regarding our Open Access policy, <a title="Open access policy." href="Full%20details of our conditions related to copyright can be found by clicking here.">click here</a>.</p> Indexing gender, culture, and cognition Angeliki Alvanoudi Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-05-06 2020-05-06 4 1 1 15 10.1558/jld.40948 Personality traits, adjectives and gender <p>There have been linguistic studies on the gendering mechanisms of adjectives&nbsp;and psychological studies on the relationship between personality traits and&nbsp;gender, but the two fields have never entered into a dialogue on these issues.&nbsp;This article seeks to address this gap by presenting an interdisciplinary study&nbsp;that explores the gendering mechanisms associated with personality traits and&nbsp;personality trait-denoting adjectives. The findings of earlier work in this area&nbsp;and basic gendering mechanisms relevant to adjectives and personality traits&nbsp;are outlined. This is followed by a linguistic and a psychological analysis of&nbsp;the usage patterns of a set of personality trait adjectives. The linguistic section&nbsp;draws on corpus linguistics to explore the distribution of these adjectives with&nbsp;female, male and gender-neutral personal nouns in the Corpus of Contemporary&nbsp;American English. The psychological analysis relates the usage frequencies&nbsp;of personality trait adjectives with the nouns man, woman and person in the&nbsp;Google Books corpus to desirability ratings of the adjectives.</p> Heiko Motschenbacher Eka Roivainen Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-05-06 2020-05-06 4 1 16 50 10.1558/jld.40370 <i>Uno</i> <div>Generic masculines – masculine forms used for women – are employed in many&nbsp;languages, for example English (Mills 2008), French (Coady 2018), Spanish&nbsp;(Bengoechea 2011) and German (Motschenbacher 2016), providing accounts&nbsp;of how gender is made visible in the language through morphological, lexical&nbsp;and syntactic units. These accounts are also linked with how gender is seen in&nbsp;societies and culture, reproducing an imbalance between women and men.&nbsp;Specifically, language discrimination against women is based on the idea that&nbsp;speakers orient themselves towards androcentric language, recognising ‘men’ as&nbsp;a metonym for the group ‘human being’ (Alvanoudi 2014), causing a linguistic&nbsp;invisibility of women.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>Similarly, studies in Italian have also discussed the use of masculine forms to&nbsp;refer to, talk about and describe women (Cavagnoli 2013), or have shown how&nbsp;these are used in specialised (Nardone 2016, 2018) or media corpora (Formato&nbsp;2014, 2016, 2019). This article investigates the use of a specific (and underexamined)&nbsp;generic masculine in Italian – namely, the indefinite pronoun (in&nbsp;comparison with labelled ‘impersonal masculine’ (Formato 2019:69)&nbsp;– in three subcorpora of the Perugia Corpus (TV, Web and Spoken; Spina 2014).&nbsp; is seen as constructing ‘extended intersubjectivity’, that is, the awareness&nbsp;of a general third party (3rdP) acting as the social bearer of the utterance&nbsp;(Tantucci 2013, 2016, 2017a). The results show that the masculine impersonal&nbsp; is widely used in the three subcorpora and in several functions, confirming&nbsp;that grammatically gendered language is still employed within a ‘masculine&nbsp;as a norm’ order.</div> Federica Formato Vittorio Tantucci Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-05-06 2020-05-06 4 1 51 73 10.1558/jld.40129 Are gendered terms inference-loaded? Evidence from Greek talk-in-interaction <p>The present study examines the relation between referential indexing of gender&nbsp;and speakers’ cognition in instances of gendered noticing in Greek talk-in-interaction,&nbsp;drawing on audio recordings of informal conversations as data and on&nbsp;conversation analysis as method. Gendered noticing occurs after actions that&nbsp;invoke specific presuppositions about gender, such as the norm of heterosexuality&nbsp;and stereotypes regarding ‘typical’ feminine and masculine attributes and&nbsp;behaviour. Speakers deploy gendered terms to attend to gender as a relevant&nbsp;aspect of context, and to position the self and others as women or men. It is&nbsp;shown that via gendered noticing, speakers uncover their covert assumptions&nbsp;about social gender and bring their conceptualisations of gender to the ‘surface’.</p> Angeliki Alvanoudi Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-05-06 2020-05-06 4 1 74 97 10.1558/jld.40369 The social deixis of gender boundaries <p>This article studies aspects of the multi-layered role of language in establishing&nbsp;and maintaining a social order based on gender. Gendered person appellations&nbsp;are traditionally seen as person reference, an interpretation loaded with&nbsp;essentialist views of gender that hardly comply with current gender theories.&nbsp;By taking a close look at the Croatian context, this article analyses the indexical&nbsp;meaning and active role of language use in normalising dominant gender&nbsp;norms. Slavic languages have played a minor role in international discussions&nbsp;on gender and language. However, they convincingly allow us to show how&nbsp;indexical functions of language use are integrated in and contribute to gendered&nbsp;perceptions of people in general. For this, an interdisciplinary approach is taken&nbsp;that alludes to both the production and the perception of this specific dimension&nbsp;of social deixis by (1) evaluating the linguistic norm of person appellation&nbsp;as found in a leading conservative newspaper, and (2) testing the perception of&nbsp;these normalised appellation forms against alternative person-naming practices&nbsp;in an online-based questionnaire. As highlighted in this article, the making&nbsp;of linguistically manifest gender boundaries is clearly observable in research&nbsp;on a language possessing rigid grammatical rules of gender marking in person&nbsp;appellation, such as Croatian.</p> Roswitha Kersten-Pejanić Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-05-06 2020-05-06 4 1 98 118 10.1558/jld.40375 The impact of British accents on perceptions of eyewitness statements <p>The current study looked at the impact of British regional accents on evaluations of eyewitness testimony in criminal trials.&nbsp;&nbsp;Ninety participants were randomly presented with one of three video recordings of eyewitness testimony manipulated to be representative of Received Pronunciation (RP), Multicultural London English (MLE) or Birmingham accents.&nbsp;&nbsp;The impact of the accent was measured through eyewitness (a) accuracy, (b) credibility, (c) deception, (d) prestige, and (e) trial outcome (defendant guilt and sentence).&nbsp;&nbsp;RP was rated more favourably than MLE on accuracy, credibility and prestige.&nbsp;&nbsp;Accuracy and prestige were significant with RP rated more highly than a Birmingham accent.&nbsp;&nbsp;RP appears to be viewed more favourably than the MLE and Birmingham accents although the witness’s accents did not affect ratings of defendant guilt. Taken together, these findings show a preference for eyewitnesses to have RP speech over some regional accents.&nbsp;</p> Lara Frumkin Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-05-06 2020-05-06 4 1 119 138 10.1558/jld.39368