An Application of Ground-Penetrating Radar at a Greater Yellowstone Area Ice Patch
Keywords:Ground-penetrating radar, GPR, Remote Sensing, Ice Patch, Greater Yellowstone Area, Rocky Mountains
Ice patches are an irreplaceable archive of past events. With atypical melting now occurring around the world, it is important to be able to quantify and interpret the potential of what remains in areas of archaeological interest. A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey was conducted at an archaeologically productive ice patch in the Greater Yellowstone Area to identify sediment layers in which archaeological materials may be present. Numerous reflective surfaces were observed and interpreted as being organic-rich layers called lags. GPR did not reveal all lag surfaces that were easily identifiable in an ice core that was collected concurrently at the same ice patch. 400 MHz and 900 MHz antennas were used in the survey, but neither fully revealed the basal profile of the ice patch. This is likely the result of the short time-window in which the data were collected, as opposed to attenuation of the radar waves deep in the ice. Future applications of the technology are explored.
Alani, A. M, M. Aboutalebi and G. Kilic. 2013. “Applications of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in Bridge Deck Monitoring and assessment.” Journal of Applied Geophysics 97: 45–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2013.04.009
Chellman, N., G. T. Pederson, C. M. Lee, D. B. McWethy, K. Puseman, J. R. Stone, S. R. Brown and J. R. McConnell. 2021. “High elevation ice patch documents Holocene climate variability in the northern Rocky Mountains.” Quaternary Science Advances 3(10021). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.qsa.2020.100021
Chen, C.-S. and Y. Jeng. 2016. “GPR investigation of the near-surface geology in a geothermal river valley using contemporary data decomposition techniques with forward simulation modeling.” Geothermics 64: 439–454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2016.06.018
Conyers, L. B. and J. E. Lucius. 1996. “Velocity analysis in archaeological ground-penetrating radar studies.” Archaeological Prospection 3: 312–333. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0763(199603)3:1%3C25::AID-ARP39%3E3.0.CO;2-U
Conyers, L. B, J. M. Daniels, J. A Haws and M. M Benedetti. 2013. “An Upper Palaeolithic landscape analysis of coastal Portugal using ground-penetrating radar.” Archaeological Prospection 20(1): 45–51. https://doi.org/10.1002/arp.1439
Conyers, L. B. 2016. Ground-penetrating Radar for Geoarchaeology. London: Wiley Blackwell Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118949993
———. 2013. Ground-penetrating Radar for Archaeology. London: Altamira Division, Routledge Press.
Dixon, E. J., C. M. Lee, W. F. Manley, R. A. Warden and W. D. Harrison. 2007. “The frozen past of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve.” Alaska Park Science: Scientific Studies on Global Warming 6(1): 24–29.
Egli, P. E., J. Irving and S. N. Lane. 2021. “Characterization of subglacial marginal channels using 3-D analysis of high-density ground-penetrating radar data.” Journal of Glaciology 1: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1017/jog.2021.26
Farnell, R., P. G. Hare, E. Blake, V. Bowyer, C. Schweger, S. Greer and R. Gotthardt. 2004. “Multidisciplinary investigations of alpine ice patches in southwest Yukon, Canada: Paleoenvironmental and paleobiological investigations.” Arctic 57(3): 247–258. https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic502
Klewe, T., Ch. Strangfeld and S. Kruschwitz. 2021. “Review of moisture measurements in civil engineering with ground penetrating radar-applied methods and signal features.” Construction & Building Materials 278: 122250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.122250
Lee, C. M. 2012. “Withering snow and ice in the mid-latitudes: A new archaeological and paleobiological record for the Rocky Mountain region.” Arctic 65 (Special Issue): 165–177. https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic4191
———. 2018. Final Report – Continuing Archaeological and Paleobiological Reconnaissance of Perennial Ice And Snow Patches, Custer Gallatin National Forest, Montana and Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming. Billings, MT: Custer Gallatin National Forest.
Lee, C. M., R. L. Kelly, K. Puseman, R. Reckin, I. Matt and P.-L. Yu. 2015. “Ice cores from ice patches: A novel paleoclimate proxy for the Rocky Mountain region.” Program and Abstracts 12th Biennial Rocky Mountain Anthropological Conference. Steamboat Springs, Colorado.
Lee, C. M., D. McWethy and G.T. Pederson. 2018. Final Report – Biodiversity Of The Longue Durée: Melting Ice and the Synergy of Humans, Bison, Big Horn Sheep and Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone. Report submitted to Buffalo Bill Historical Center’s Draper Natural History Museum, University of Wyoming’s Biodiversity Institute, and Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation—Monaco and USA
Lee, C. M. and K. Puseman. 2017. “Ice patch hunting in the greater Yellowstone area, Rocky Mountains, USA: Wood shafts, chipped stone projectile points, and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis).” American Antiquity 82(2): 223–243. https://doi.org/10.1017/aaq.2016.32
Lee, C. M., D. Seifert, E. Chatelain, Z. Seligman, D. Evans, H. Fisk and Paul Maus. 2009. Prioritizing Perennial Snow and Ice Fields with Archeological Research Potential in the Beartooth Mountains, Montana. Occasional Papers of the Remote Sensing Applications Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Salt Lake City, Utah. Paper number: RSAC-0115-RPT2.
Lowe, K. M. and L. A. Wallis. 2020. “Exploring ground-penetrating radar and sediment magnetic susceptibility analyses in a sandstone rockshelter in northern Australia.” Australian Archaeology 86(1): 63–74. https://doi.org/10.1080/03122417.2020.1764172
Meulendyk, T., B. J. Moorman, T. D. Andrews and G. MacKAY. 2012. “Morphology and development of ice patches in Northwest Territories, Canada.” Arctic 65 (Special Issue): 43–58. https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic4184
Monnier, S. and Ch. Kinnard. 2013. “Internal structure and composition of a rock glacier in the Andes (upper Choapa Valley, Chile) using borehole information and ground-penetrating radar.” Annals of Glaciology 54(64): 61–72. https://doi.org/10.3189/2013AoG64A107
Pilø, L. H., J. H. Barrett, T. Eiken, E. Finstad, S. Grønning, J. R Post-Melbye, A. Nesje, J. Rosvold, B. Solli and R. S. Ødegård. 2021. “Interpreting archaeological site-formation processes at a mountain ice patch: A case study from Langfonne, Norway.” The Holocene 31(3): 469–482. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683620972775
Reckin, R. 2017. “Resiliency and loss: A case study of two clusters of high elevation ice patches in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem, USA.” Archaeological Review from Cambridge 32(2): 38–55.
Seifert, D., E. Chatelain, C. M. Lee, Z. Seligman, D. Evans, H. Fisk and P. Maus. 2009. Monitoring Alpine Climate Change in the Beartooth Mountains of the Custer National Forest. Occasional Papers of the Remote Sensing Applications Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Salt Lake City, Utah. Paper number: RSAC-0115-RPT1.
Steiner, H. and R. Gietl. 2020. “Glacial Archaeology in South Tyrol.” Journal of Glacial Archaeology, 4:43–55. https://doi.org/10.1558/jga.34736
Taylor, W., J. K. Clark, B. Reichhardt, G. Hodgins, J. Bayarsaikhan, O. Batchuluun, J. Whitworth, M. Nansalmaa, C. M. Lee and E. J. Dixon. 2019. “Investigating reindeer pastoralism and exploitation of high mountain zones in northern Mongolia through ice patch archaeology.” PLoS ONE 14(11):e0224741. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224741
Urban, T. M., J. T. Rasic, C. Alix, D. D. Anderson, S. W. Manning, O. K. Mason, A. H. Tremayne, and Ch. B. Wolff. 2016. “Frozen: the potential and pitfalls of ground-penetrating radar for archaeology in the Alaskan Arctic.” Remote Sensing 8(12): 1007. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8121007
Utsi, E. C. 2017. Ground Penetrating Radar: Theory and Practice. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.
VanderHoek, R., E. J. Dixon, N. L. Jarman and R. M. Tedor. 2012. “Ice patch archeology in Alaska: 2000–10.” Arctic 65 (Special Issue): 153–164. https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic4190
Xie, P., H. Wen, P. Xiao and Y. Zhang. 2018. “Evaluation of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and geology survey for slope stability study in mantled karst region.” Environmental Earth Sciences 77(4): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7306-9
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.