Should Archaeology Have a Future?
Keywords:alternatives, archaeology, capitalism, collaboration, education
AbstractArchaeologists have recently been discussing what the future may hold for archaeology, a focus firmly situated within the context that the discipline of archaeology is authentic and legitimate and deserves to have a future. In this paper, I want to challenge these ideas and think instead about whether archaeology should even have a future. This line of reasoning is developed by examining the relationship between capitalism and the academy, neoliberal transformations to higher education, and some of the ways that archaeologists have responded. I conclude with some suggestions for alternatives, both for those working within the dominant capitalist academic structures themselves and those that eschew capitalism itself.
American Anthropological Association. 2017. “Guidelines for Tenure and Promotion Review: Communicating Public Scholarship in Anthropology.” Online: http://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-aaa/files/production/public/AAA%20Guidelines%20TP%20Communicating%20Forms%20of%20Public%20Anthropology.pdf
Apple, M. W. 1995. Education and Power. New York: Routledge.
Black Trowel Collective. 2016. “Foundations of an Anarchist Archaeology: A Community Manifesto.” Online: https://savageminds.org/2016/10/31/foundations-of-an-anarchist-archaeology-a-community-manifesto/
Bond, S. 2017. “Dear Scholars, Delete Your Account at Academia.edu.” Forbes website 23 January. Online: http://www.forbes.com/sites/drsarahbond/2017/01/23/dear-scholars-delete-your-account-at-academia-edu/#6aea56b2ee0d
Cole, M. 2013. “Education and Twenty-First Century Socialism: The Venezuelan Alternative to Neo-Liberal Capitalism.” In Teaching Marx: The Socialist Challenge, edited by C. S. Malott, M. Cole and J. M. Elmore, 343–362. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
Crehan, K. 2016. Gramsci’s Common Sense: Inequality and Its Narratives. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822373742
Dawdy, S. L. 2009. Millennial Archaeology: Locating the Discipline in the Age of Insecurity. Archaeological Dialogues 16 (2): 131–142. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1380203809990055
Eagleton, T. 2008. “Comrades and Colons.” In Practicing Public Scholarship: Experiences and Possibilities Beyond the Academy, edited by K. Mitchell, 6–10. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444307375.ch
____. 2011. Why Marx Was Right. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
____. 2017. “The New Politics of Class Review – Has the Working Class been Left Behind?” The Guardian, 19 January. Online: https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/jan/19/the-new-politics-of-class-review-geoffrey-evans-james-tilley 1
Frank, T. 2016. “Millions of Ordinary Americans Support Donald Trump. Here’s Why.” The Guardian, 8 March. Online: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/mar/07/donald-trump-why-americans-support
Fraser, S. 2012. “The Hollowing Out of America.” The Nation, 3 December. Online: https://www.thenation.com/article/hollowing-out-america/
____. 2016. “The Dinosaur and the Billionaire.” The Nation, 11 November. Online: https://www.thenation.com/article/the-democratic-party-must-defend-the-working-class/
Gahman, L. 2016. “Dismantling Neoliberal Education: A Lesson from the Zapatistas.” Roar Magazine, 4 April. Online: https://roarmag.org/essays/neoliberal-education-zapatista-pedagogy/
Giroux, H. A. 2006. “Higher Education Under Siege: Implications for Public Intellectuals.” Thought and Action 22: 63–78.
____. 2011. Zombie Politics and Culture in the Age of Casino Capitalism. New York: Peter Lang. https://doi.org/10.3726/978-1-4539-1371-0
____. 2017. “Militant Hope in the Age of Trump.” The Bullet 1355. Online: https://socialistproject.ca/bullet/1355.php
Gnecco, C. and A. S. Dias. 2015. “On Contract Archaeology.” International Journal of Historical Archaeology 19 (4): 687–698. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10761-015-0305-6
Gramsci, A. 1971. Selections from the Prison Notebooks. New York: International Publishers.
Gross, N. 2013. “The Actual Politics of Professors.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, 5 March. Online: http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/conversation/2013/03/05/the-actual-politics-of-professors/
Haber, A. F. 2012. “Undisciplining Archaeology.” Archaeologies 8 (1): 55–66. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11759-011-9178-4
Hamilakis, Y. 2012. “Are we Postcolonial Yet? Tales from the Battlefield.” Archaeologies 8 (1): 67–76. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11759-012-9200-5
____. 2015. “Archaeology and the Logic of Capital: Pulling the Emergency Break.” International Journal of Historical Archaeology 19 (4):721–735. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10761-015-0307-4
____. and P. Duke, eds. 2007. Archaeology and Capitalism. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.
Harvey, D. 2000. Spaces of Hope. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Haworth, R. 2012. “Introduction.” In Anarchist Pedagogies: Collective Actions, Theories, and Critical Reflections on Education, edited by R. Haworth, 1–10. Oakland CA: PM Press.
Hill, D., P. McLaren and M. Cole, eds. 2002. Marxism Against Postmodernism in Educational Theory. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Hofstadter, R. 1963. Anti-Intellectualism in American Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Holloway, J. 2010. Crack Capitalism. London: Pluto Press.
Horowitz, D. 2006. The Professors: The 101 Most Dangerous Academics in America. Washington, DC: Regnery.
Hutchings, R. and M. La Salle. 2015. “Archaeology as Disaster Capitalism.” International Journal of Historical Archaeology 19 (4): 699–720. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10761-015-0308-3
Isenberg, N. 2016. White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America. New York: Viking.
Kimball, R. 2008. The Tenured Radical: How Politics has Corrupted Our Higher Education. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.
Kimmel, M. 2015. Angry White Men: American Masculinity at the End of an Era. New York: Nation Books.
Lynch, C. 2017. “Donald Trump’s Glorious Victory for Anti-Intellectualism: ‘Drain the Swamp’ Just Meant the Eggheads.” Salon, 7 January: http://www.salon.com/2017/01/07/donald-trumps-glorious-victory-for-anti-intellectualism-drain-the-swamp-just-meant-the-eggheads/
Malott, C. S. 2013. “Rethinking Educational Purpose: The Socialist Challenge.” In Teaching Marx: The Socialist Challenge, edited by C. S. Malott, M. Cole and J. M. Elmore, x–xxvi. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
McGuire, R. H. 2008. Archaeology as Political Action. Berkeley: University of California Press.
____. and M. Walker. 1999. “Class Confrontations in Archaeology.” Historical Archaeology 33 (1): 159–183. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03374285
McLaren, P. 2000. Che Guevara, Paulo Freire, and the Pedagogy of Revolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
McNally, D. 2011. Monsters of the Market: Zombies, Vampires and Global Capitalism. Chicago: Haymarket Books. https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004201576.i-296
Nair, Y. 2017. “The Dangerous Academic is an Extinct Species.” Current Affairs, 18 April. Online: http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/conversation/2013/03/05/the-actual-politics-of-professors/
Ollila, D. J. 1977. “The Work People’s College: Immigrant Education for Adjustment and Solidarity.” In For the Common Good: Finnish Immigrants and the Radical Response to Industrial America, edited by M. G. Karni and D. J. Ollila, Jr, 87–117. Superior, WI: Tyomies Society.
Ollman, B. 1993. “The Ideal of Academic Freedom as the Ideology of Academic Repression, American Style.” In Dialectical Investigations, by B. Ollman, 119–141. New York: Routledge. Online: https://www.nyu.edu/projects/ollman/docs/di_ch07.php
____. 2003. Dance of the Dialectic. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
____. 2014. “Historical Archaeology, Dialectical Marxism, and ‘C.F.U.G. Studies’.” International Journal of Historical Archaeology 18 (2): 361–373. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10761-014-0262-5
Patterson, T. C. 2002. Toward a Social History of Archaeology in the United States. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Thomson Learning.
Pinta, S. 2012. “Educate, Organize, Emancipate: The Work People’s College and the Industrial Workers of the World.” In Anarchist Pedagogies: Collective Actions, Theories, and Critical Reflections on Education, edited by R. Haworth, 47–68. Oakland, CA: PM Press.
Rein, W. 1929. Nuoriso, Oppi ja Työ [Youth, Learning and Labor]. Duluth, MN: Workers’ Socialist Publishing Company.
Rico, A. 2014. “Educate in Resistance: The Autonomous Zapatista Schools.” Roar Magazine, 2 January. Online: https://roarmag.org/essays/zapatista-autonomous-education-chiapas/
Roby, J. R. and M. T. Starzmann. 2014. “Techniques of Power and Archaeologies of the Contemporary Past.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting for the Society for Historical Archaeology, Quebec City, Canada, 8–12 January 2014.
Roseberry, W. 1996. “The Unbearable Lightness of Anthropology.” Radical History Review 65: 5–25. https://doi.org/10.1215/01636545-1996-65-5
Runciman, D. 2016. “How the Education Gap is Tearing Politics Apart.” The Guardian, 4 February. Online: https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/oct/05/trump-brexit-education-gap-tearing-politics-apart
Shanks, M. and R. H. McGuire. 1996. “The Craft of Archaeology.” American Antiquity 61 (1): 75–88. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0002731600050046
Speakman, R. J, C. S. Hadden, M. H. Colvin, J. Cramb, K. C. Jones, T. W. Jones, C. L. Kling, I. Lulewicz, K. G. Napora, K. L. Reinberger, B. T. Ritchinson, M. J. Rivera-Araya, A. K. Smith and V. D. Thompson. 2018. “Choosing a Path to the Ancient World in a Modern Market: The Reality of Faculty Jobs in Archaeology.” American Antiquity 83 (1): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1017/aaq.2017.36
Starzmann, M. T. 2016. “Exit From Anthropology: The Limits of Academic Epistemologies for Radical Politics.” Paper Presented at RATS (Radical Archaeology Theory Symposium) 2016, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, 3–6 March.
Stiglitz, J. E. 2013. “Student Debt and the Crushing of the American Dream.” New York Times, 12 May. Online: https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/05/12/student-debt-and-the-crushing-of-the-american-dream/.
Tarlow, S. and L. Stutz. 2013. “Can an Archaeologist be a Public Intellectual?” Archaeological Dialogues 20 (1): 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1380203813000032
Thomas, J. 2015. “Archaeological Futures.” Antiquity 89 (348): 1287–1296. https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2015.183
Trigger, B. 1989. A History of Archaeological Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Vance, J. D. 2016. Hillbilly Elegy. New York: Harper.
Wall, T. and D. Perrin. 2015. Slavoj Žižek: A Žižekian Gaze at Education. New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21242-5
Wallerstein, I. 2000. “What are We Bounding, and Whom, When We Bound Social Research.” In The Essential Wallerstein, 170–184. New York: The New Press.
Williams, J. J. 2006. “Debt Education.” Dissent summer issue: 53–59. Online: https://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/debt-education-bad-for-the-young-bad-for-america
Wolf, E. 1982. Europe and the People Without History. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wolf-Meyer, M. 2013. “The Future of Anthropology (According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics).” N = 1, 24 February. Online: https://nequalsone.wordpress.com/2013/02/24/the-future-of-anthropology-according-to-the-bureau-of-labor-statistics/.
Wurst, L. 2011. “‘Human Accumulations’: Class and Tourism at Niagara Falls.” International Journal of Historical Archaeology 15 (2): 254–266. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10761-011-0140-3
____. 2015a. “The Historical Archaeology of Capitalist Dispossession.” Capital and Class 39 (1): 33–49. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309816814564131
____. 2015b. “Towards a Collective Historical Archaeology.” Reviews in Anthropology 44 (2): 118–138.
____. and S. Mrozowski. 2016. “Capitalism in Motion”. Historical Archaeology 50 (4): 81–99. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03377335
____. and S. Novinger. 2011. “Hidden Boundaries: Archaeology, Education, and Ideology in the United States.” In Ideologies in Archaeology, edited by R. Bernbeck and R. H. McGuire, 254–269. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Zeldin, T. 1994. An Intimate History of Humanity. London: Minerva.
Žižek, S. 2008. Violence. New York: Picador.
____. 2009. The Sublime Object of Ideology. London: Verso.
____. 2015. Trouble in Paradise: From the End of History to the End of Capitalism. New York: Melville House.
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.