Imaging Modern Decay
The Aesthetics of Ruin Photography
Keywords:photography, aesthetics, ruins, things
Photographs of abandoned homes, decaying towns and industrial ruins swarm the Internet. They also fill the glossy pages of art books and popular magazine issues, and are increasingly appropriating more prominent spaces in scholarly publication on modern decay and abandonment. While its popularity speaks to its attractiveness, this proliferating ruin imagery has also become the target of harsh criticism from both concerned scholars and people affected by ruination. To them much of this is little but “ruin porn”: a superficial and one-eyed portrayal of urban decay that turns social and material misery into something seductive and aesthetically pleasing. This paper takes a different position. Speaking from an archaeological perspective, and especially the archaeology of the contemporary past, it argues that the new engagement with ruin photography rather calls for a reconsideration and appreciation of the role of photography; not merely as a means of documentation but also an interactive and attentive way to approach things themselves. By scrutinizing what the critics have claimed to be the fallacies of the image (its selectivity, timelessness, superficiality and tendency to aestheticize), and by emphasizing ruin photography as an engagement with things, the paper aims to show that it is precisely the alleged shortcomings that make photography a valuable method in a new approach to things and ruins.
Adorno, T. W., G. Adorno and R. Tiedemann. 1984. Aesthetic Theory. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Adorno, T. W. and W. Benjamin. 1999. The Complete Correspondence, 1928–1940. Oxford: Polity Press.
Agamben, G. 2007. Profanations. Translated by J. Fort. New York: Zone Books.
Agee, J. and W. Evans. 2006. Let Us Now Praise Famous Men. London: Penguin Books.
Alberti, B., S. Fowles, M. Holbraad, Y. Marshall and C. Witmore. 2011. “Worlds Otherwise: Archaeology, Anthropology, and Ontological Difference.” Current Anthropology 52(6): 896–912. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/662027
Andreassen, E., H. Bjerck and B. Olsen. 2010. Persistent Memories: Pyramiden—a Soviet Mining Town in the High Arctic. Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag.
Arthur, P. 1997. “On the Virtues and Limitations of Collage.” Documentary Box 11: 1–7.
Auslander, P. 2006. “The Performativity of Performance Documentation.” Performing Arts Journal 84: 1–10.
Badiou, A. 2005. Handbook of Inaesthetics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Bailey, D. 2013. “Cutting the Earth/Cutting the Body.” In Reclaiming Archaeology: Beyond the Tropes of Modernity, edited by A. González-Ruibal, 337–345. London: Routledge.
Bale, K. 2009. Estetikk: En innføring. Oslo: Pax Forlag. Barad, K. 2007 Meeting the Universe Halfway: Quantum Physics and the Entanglement of Matter and Meaning. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/9780822388128
Barthes, R. 1977. Image-Music-Text. London: Fontana Paperbacks.
Barthes, R. 1984. Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography. London: Fontana Paperbacks.
Bateman, J. 2006. “Pictures, Ideas and Things: The Production and Currency of Archaeological Images.” In Ethnographies of Archaeological Practice: Cultural Encounters, Material Transformations, edited by M. Edgeworth, 68–80. Lanham: Altamira Press.
Bazin, A. 1967. What is Cinema, Volume 1. Selected and translated by H. Gray. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bender, B. 1999. “Subverting the Western Gaze: Mapping Alternative Worlds.” In The Archaeology and Anthropology of Landscape: Shaping Your Landscape, edited by P. J. Ucko and R. Layton, 31–45. London: Routledge.
Benjamin, W. 1999. The Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
Benjamin, W. 2003. Selected Writings, Volume 4: 1938–1940. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
Bennett, J. 2010. Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
bfp. “The Ruin Porn Post.” 2011. Feministe. September 15. Available online: http://www.feministe.us/blog/archives/2011/09/15/the-ruin-porn-post/, accessed January 2, 2013.
Binelli, M. 2012. “How Detroit Became the World Capital of Staring at Abandoned Old Buildings.” The New York Times, November 9, 2012. Available online: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/11/magazine/how-detroit-became-the-world-capital-of-staring-at-abandoned-old-buildings.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&, accessed January 12, 2014.
Bohrer, F. N. 2005. “Photography and Archaeology: The Image as Object.” In Envisioning the Past: Archaeology and the Image, edited by S. Smiles and S. Moser, 180–191. Oxford: Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470774830.ch9
Bohrer, F. N. 2011. Photography and Archaeology. London: Reaktion Books.
Bogost, I. 2012. Alien Phenomenology, or What It’s Like to Be a Thing. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Bruzzi, S. 2001. New Documentary: A Critical Introduction. London: Routledge.
Bryant, L. R. 2011. The Democracy of Objects. Ann Arbor, MI: Open Humanities Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.3998/ohp.9750134.0001.001
Bryant, L. R., N. Srnicek and G. Harman. 2011. The Speculative Turn: Continental Materialism and Realism. Melbourne: re:press.
Buck-Morss, S. 1989. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Buck-Morss, S. 1992. “Aesthetics and Anaesthetics: Walter Benjamin’s Artwork Essay Reconsidered.” October 62: 3–41.
Buck-Morss, S. 1993. “Aesthetics and Anaesthetics: Walter Benjamin’s Artwork Essay Reconsidered.” New Formations: The Actuality of Walter Benjamin 20: 123–143.
Cherry, J. F. 2014. “Archaeological Landscapes: Pushed Towards Ruination.” In Of Rocks and Water: Towards an Archaeology of Place, Joukowsky Institute Puplications 5, edited by Omür Harmansah, 203–211. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
Christopher, M. 2012. “Confessions of a Ruin Pornographer: A Lurid Tale of Art, Double Standards and Decay (Part I).” Abandoned America. Available online: http://www.abandonedamerica.us/life-as-a-ruin-pornographer, accessed October 15, 2012.
Cochrane, A. and I. Russell. 2007. “Visualizing Archaeologies: A Manifesto.” Cambridge Archaeological Journal 17(1): 3–19.
Connolly, W. 2011. A World of Becoming. London: Duke University Press.
Coole, D. and S. Frost. 2010. New Materialisms: Ontology, Agency and Politics. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/9780822392996
Crang, M. 2010. “The Death of Great Ships: Photography, Politics and Waste in the Global Imaginary.” Environment and Planning A 42: 1084–1102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a42414
Data Driven Detroit. 2013. “City of Detroit Building Demolitions.” Block x Block: Data Driven Detroit, July 25. Available online: http://blog.datadrivendetroit.org/2013/07/26/demolitions-interactive-map/, accessed January 12, 2014.
Dawdy, S. L. 2010. “Clockpunk Anthropology and the Ruins of Modernity.” Current Anthropology 51(6): 761–793. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/657626
DeLanda, M. 2006. A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity. London: Continuum.
DeSilvey, C. and T. Edensor. 2013. “Reckoning with Ruins.” Progress in Human Geography 37(4): 465–485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309132512462271
Dewsbury, J-D. 2003. “Witnessing Space: ‘Knowledge without Contemplation’.” Environment and Planning A 35: 1907–1932. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a3582
Domanska, E. 2006. “The Return to Things.” Archaeologia Polona 44: 171–185.
Domanska, E. 2010. “Beyond Anthropocentrism in Historical Studies.” Historein 10: 118–130.
Downing, E. 2006. After Images: Photography, Archaeology and Psychoanalysis and the Tradition of Bildung. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.
Eagleton, T. 1990. The Ideology of the Aesthetic. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Edensor, T. 2005a. Industrial Ruins: Space, Aesthetics and Materiality. Oxford: Berg
Edensor, T. 2005b. “The Ghosts of Industrial Ruins: Ordering and Disordering Memory in Excessive Space.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 23: 829–849. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d58j
Edensor, T. 2005c. “Waste Matter—The Debris of Industrial Ruins and the Disordering of the Material World.” Journal of Material Culture 10(3): 311–332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359183505057346
Edensor, T. 2007. “Sensing the Ruin.” The Senses and Society 2(2): 217–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.2752/174589307X203100
Edgeworth, M. 2012. “Follow the Cut, Follow the Rhythm, Follow the Material.” Norwegian Archaeological Review 45(1): 76–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00293652.2012.669995
Elíasson, N. and A. Á. Sigurðsson. 2004. Abandoned Farms. Reykjavík: Edda.
Elíasson, N. and A. Á. Sigurðsson. 2011. Hús eru aldrei ein—Black Sky. Reykjavík: Uppheimar.
Foster, H. 1996. The Return of the Real: The Avant-Garde at the End of the Century. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
Foucault, M. 1986. “Nietzsche, Genealogy, History.” In The Foucault Reader, edited by P. Rabinow, 76–100. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Foucault, M. 1989. The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. London: Routledge.
García Espinosa, J. 1979. “For an Imperfect Cinema.” Jump Cut 20: 24–26.
Gibson, J. J. 1966. The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Gibson, J. J. 1979. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
González-Ruibal, A. ed. 2013. Reclaiming Archaeology: Beyond the Tropes of Modernity. London: Routledge.
González-Ruibal, A. 2008. Time to Destroy. An Archaeology of Supermodernity. Current Anthropology 49(2): 247–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/526099
Gregg, M. and G. J. Seigworth, eds. 2010. The Affect Theory Reader. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Gumbrecht, H. U. 2004. Production of Presence: What Meaning Cannot Convey. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Hamilakis, Y., A. Anagnostopoulos and F. Ifantidis. 2009. “Postcards From the Edge of Time: Archaeology, Photography, Archaeological Ethnography (A Photo-Essay).” Public Archaeology 8(2–3): 283–309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/175355309X457295
Haraway, D. 1991. Simians, Cyborgs, and Women. New York: Routledge.
Harman, G. 2002. Tool-being: Heidegger and the Metaphyics of Objects. Chicago, IL: Open Court.
Harman, G. 2005. Guerrilla Metaphysics: Phenomenology and the Carpentry of Things. Chicago, IL: Open Court.
Harman, G. 2012. The Quadruple Object. Winchester, UK: Zero Books.
Harman, G. 2013. Bells and Whistles: More Speculative Realism. Winchester, UK: Zero Books.
Harrison, R. 2011. “Surface Assemblages: Towards an Archaeology In and Of the Present.” Archaeological Dialogues 18(2): 141–161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1380203811000195
Harrison, R. and J. Schofield. 2010. After Modernity: Archaeological Approaches to the Contemporary Past. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hastrup, K. 1992. “Anthropological Visions: Some Notes on Visual and Textual Authority.” In Film as Ethnography, edited by P. I. Crawford and D. Turton, 8–25. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Heidegger, M. 1962. Being and Time. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
Heidegger, M. 1993. “The Question Concerning Technology.” In Martin Heidegger: Basic Writings, edited by D. F. Krell, 217–238. San Francisco: Harper Collins.
Hodder, I. 1999. The Archaeological Process. Oxford: Blackwell.
Ingold, T. 2005. “The Eye of the Storm: Visual Perception and the Weather.” Visual Studies 20(2): 97–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14725860500243953
Jameson, F. 1990. Late Marxism: Adorno, or, the Persistence of the Dialectic. New York: Verso.
Jameson, F. 2009. Valences of the Dialectic. London: Verso.
Jay, M. 1998. “Scopic Regimes of Modernity.” In The Visual Culture Reader, edited by N. Mirzoeff. London: Routledge.
Jörnmark, J. and A. Von Hausswolff. 2011. Avgrunden. Riga: Livonia Print.
Kaczmarczyk, J. 2012. “Controversial Photos of Detroit Dubbed ‘Ruin Porn’ Ending Visit at Grand Rapids Art Museum.” MLive.com http://www.mlive.com/entertainment/grand-rapids/indexssf/2012/08/controversial_photos_of_detroi.html
Kant, I. 1999 . Critique of Pure Reason. Translated by P. Guyer and A. Wood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kaye, N. 2000. Site-specific Art: Performance, Place and Documentation. London: Routledge.
Kemp, W. 1990. “Images of Decay: Photography in the Picturesque Tradition.” October 54 (Autumn): 102–133.
Kurth, J., M. Wilkinson and L. Aguilar, 2013. “Six decades in Detroit: How Abandonment, Racial Tensions and Financial Missteps Bankrupted the City.” The Detroit News, October 4, 2013. Available online at: http://www.detroitnews.com/article/20131004/METRO01/310040001, accessed January 12, 2014.
Larsen, Jens-Eirik, B. Olsen, A. Hesjedal and I. Storli. 1992. Camera archaeologica: rapport fra et feltarbeid. Tromsø: Museums Skrifter XXIII.
Larsen, Jonas. 2005. “Families Seen Sightseeing: Performativity of Tourist Photography.” Space and Culture 8(4): 416–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1206331205279354
Leary, J. P. 2011. “Detroitism.” Guernica: A Magazine of Art and Politics, January 15. Available online: http://www.guernicamag.com/features/leary_1_15_11/, accessed February 26, 2013.
Lowenthal, D. 1996. Possessed by the Past: The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History. New York: Free Press.
Lucas, G. 2002. Critical Approaches to Fieldwork. London: Taylor and Francis.
Lucas, G. 2013. “Ruins.” In The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Contemporary World, edited by P. Graves-Brown, R. Harrison and A. Piccini, 192–203. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mah, A. 2010. “Memory, Uncertainty and Industrial Ruination: Walker Riverside, Newcastle upon Tyne.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 34(2): 398–413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2010.00898.x
Malpas, J. 2012. Heidegger and the Thinking of Place: Explorations in the Topology of Being. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262016841.001.0001
Marchand, Y. and R. Meffre. 2010. The Ruins of Detroit. Göttingen: Steidl.
Margaine, S. and D. Margaine. 2009. Forbidden Places: Exploring Our Abandoned Heritage. Versailles: Jonglez Publishing.
Marks, L. 2000. The Skin of the Film: Intercultural Cinema, Embodiment, and the Senses. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
McGraw, B. 2013. “Detroit Thieves Rip off World-Famous Photog Christopher Morris Twice.” Deadline Detroit, December 5, 2013. Available online: http://www.deadlinedetroit.com/articles/7454/detroit_thieves_rip_off_world-famous_photog_christopher_morris_twice_in_one_day#.UuQbi_Yo4y6, accessed January 12, 2014.
McLucas, C. 2000. “Ten Feet and Three Quarters of an Inch of Theatre: A Documentation of Tri Bywyd —A Site Specific Theatre Work.” In Site Specific Art: Performance, Place and Documentation, edited by N. Kaye, 125–138. London: Routledge.
Merleau-Ponty, M. 1968. The Visible and the Invisible. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Mitchell, W. J. T. 2005. What Do Pictures Want? The Lives and Loves of Images. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Moore, A. 2010. Detroit Disassembled. Bologna: Damiani.
Morton, Thomas. 2009. “Something, Something, Something, Detroit: Lazy Journalists Love Pictures of Abandoned Stuff.” Vice Beta. Available online: http://www.vice.com/read/something-something-something-detroit-994-v16n8, accessed February 26, 2013.
Morton, Timothy. 2011. “Here Comes Everything: The promise of Object-oriented Ontology.” Qui Parle: Critical Humanities and Social Sciences 19(2): 163–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.5250/quiparle.19.2.0163
Morton, Timothy. 2012. Realist Magic: Objects, Ontology, Causality. Ann Arbor, MI: Open Humanities Press.
Morton, Timothy. 2013. Hyperobjects: Philosophy and Ecology After the End of the World. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Moser, S. 2009. “Archaeological Representation: The Consumption and Creation of the Past.” In The Oxford Book of Archaeology, edited by B. Cunliffe, C. Gosden and R. A. Joyce, 1048–1077. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mullins, P. 2012. “The Politics and Archaeology of ‘Ruin Porn’.” Archaeology and Material Culture, August 19. Available online: http://paulmullins.wordpress.com/2012/08/19/the-politics-and-archaeology-of-ruin-porn/, accessed October 15, 2012.
Mulvey, L. 1975. “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema.” Screen 16(3): 6–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/screen/16.3.6
Neavling, S. 2013. “Tourists Carjacked While Taking Photos at Packard Plant.” Motor City Muckraker, October 19, 2013. Available online: http://motorcitymuckraker.com/2013/10/19/tourists-carjacked-taking-photos-packard-plant/, accessed January 12, 2014.
O’Boyle, S. 2010. Modern Ruins: Portraits of Place in the Mid-Atlantic Region. University Park, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Olivier, L. 2008. Le sombre abîme du temps : mémoire et archéologie. Paris: Seuil.
Olivier, L. 2011. The Dark Abyss of Time: Archaeology and Memory. Lanham, CA: Alta Mira Press.
Olsen, B. 2003. “Material Culture after Text: Re-membering Things.” Norwegian Archaeological Review 36(2): 87–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00293650310000650
Olivier, L. 2007. “Keeping Things at Arm’s Length: A Genealogy of Asymmetry.” World Archaeology, 39(4): 579–588. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00438240701679643
Olivier, L. 2010. In Defense of Things: Archaeology and the Ontology of Objects. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
Olivier, L. 2012. “After Interpretation: Remembering Archaeology.” Current Swedish Archaeology 20: 11–34.
Olivier, L., M. Shanks, T. Webmoor and C. Witmore. 2012. Archaeology: The Discipline of Things. Berkeley: University of California Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520274167.001.0001
Ong, W. J. 1982. Orality and Literacy. Abingdon: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203328064
O’Toole, L. 1999. Pornocopia: Porn, Sex, Technology and Desire. London: Serpent’s Tail.
Parno, T. G. 2010. “Snapshots of History and the Nature of the Archaeological Image.” Archaeologies 6(1): 115–137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11759-010-9123-y
Parno, T. G. 2012. “Some Thoughts on the Aesthetics of Ruination.” Historical and Contemporary Archaeology, August 21. Available online: http://travisparno.org/2012/08/21/some-thoughts-on-the-aesthetics-of-ruination/, accessed October 15, 2012.
Pearson, M. 2007. In Comes I: Performance, Memory, and Landscape. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.
Pearson, M. 2010. Site-specific Performance. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Pearson, M. and M. Shanks. 1996. “Performing a Visit: Archaeologies of the Contemporary Past.” Performance Research 2: 42–60.
Pearson, M. and M. Shanks. 2001. Theatre/Archaeology. London: Routledge.
Pearson, M. and M. Shanks. 2013. “Pearson|Shanks —Theatre/Archaeology—Return and Prospect.” In Art and Archaeology: Collaborations, Conversations, Criticisms, edited by I. Russell and A. Cochrane, 199–230. New York: Springer.
Pearson, M. and M. Shanks. 2014. “Autosuggestion: Between Performance and Design.” Performance Research 19(3): 101–110.
Perry, S. 2013. “Archaeological Visualization and the State of Disciplinary Theory.” In Archaeology After Interpretation: Returning Materials to Archaeological Theory, edited by B. Alberti, A. Jones and J. Pollard, 281–303. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.
Petrie, W. M. F. 1904. Methods and Aims in Archaeology. London: Macmillan.
Pétursdóttir, Þ. 2012. “Small Things Forgotten Now Included, Or What Else do Things Deserve?” International Journal of Historical Archaeology 16: 577–603.
Pétursdóttir, Þ. 2014. “Things Out-of-hand: The Aesthetics of Abandonment.” In Ruin Memories: Materiality, Aesthetics and the Archaeology of the Recent Past, edited by B. Olsen and Þ. Pétursdóttir, 335–364. London: Routledge.
Pétursdóttir, Þ. and B. Olsen. 2014. “An Archaeology of Ruins.” In Ruin Memories: Materialities, Aesthetics and the Archaeology of the Recent Past, edited by B. Olsen and Þ. Pétursdóttir, 3–29. London: Routledge.
Piccini, A. 2009. “Guttersnipe: A Micro Road Movie.” In Contemporary Archaeologies: Excavating Now, edited by C. Holtorf and A. Piccini, 183–199. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Pickering, A. 2011. “Ontological Politics: Realism and Agency in Science, Technology and Art.” Insights 4(9): 2–11.
Pozorov, S. 2011. “Pornography and Profanation in the Political Philosophy of Giorgio Agamben.” Theory, Culture and Society 28(4): 71–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263276411405076
Pusca, A. 2010. “Industrial and Human Ruins of Postcommunist Europe.” Space and Culture 13(3): 239–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1206331210365255
Rancière, J. 2004. The Politics of Aesthetics: The Distribution of the Sensible. London: Continuum.
Rancière, J. 2007. The Future of the Image. London: Verso.
Renfrew, C. 2003. Figuring It Out: What Are We? Where Do We Come From? The Parallel Visions of Artists and Archaeologists. London: Thames and Hudson.
Robinson, D. M. 1995. Tintern Abbey. Cardiff: Cadw.
Romany, W. G. 2010. Beauty in Decay: Urbex: The Art of Urban Exploration. London: CarpetBombingCulture.
Rose, M. and J. Wylie. 2006. “Animating Landscape.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 24: 475–479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d2404ed
Ruin Memories 2014. Ruin Memories: A Portfolio. Available online: http://www.ruinmemories.org/, accessed January 12, 2014.
Russell, I. and A. Cochrane. 2013. Art and Archaeology: Collaborations, Conversations, Criticisms. New York: Springer.
Ryzewski, K. 2013. “Detroit, City on the Move: Contemporary / Historical Archaeologies and the Future-Making of Urban Space.” Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Contemporary and Historical Archaeology in Theory group, University College London, November 9.
Schofield, J. 2009. “Constructing Place: When Artists and Archaeologists Meet.” In Aftermath: Readings in the Archaeology of Recent Conflict, edited by J. Schofield, 185–196. New York: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-88521-6_15
Shanks, M. 1992. Experiencing the Past: On the Character of Archaeology. London: Routledge.
Shanks, M. 1995. “Archaeological Experiences and a Critical Romanticism.” In The Archaeologist and His/Her Reality. Proceedings of the 4th Nordic TAG Conference 1992, Helsinki Papers in Archaeology 7, edited by M. Tusa and T. Kirkinen, 17–36. Helsinki: University of Helsinki, Department of Archaeology.
Shanks, M. 1997a. “Photography and Archaeology.” In The Cultural Life of Images: Visual Representation in Archaeology, edited by B. L. Molyneaux, 73–107. London: Routledge.
Shanks, M. 1997b. “L’archéologie et le passé contemporain: un paradigme.” In Une Archéologie du Passé Recent, edited by A. Schnapp and L. Olivier, 245–252. Paris: Maison des Sciences de l’Homme.
Shanks, M. 1998. “The life of an artifact.” Fennoscandia Archaeologica 15: 15–42.
Shanks, M. 2007. “Digital Media, Agile Design and the Politics of Archaeological Authorship.” In Archaeology and the Media, edited by T. Clack and M. Brittain, 273–290. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.
Shanks, M. 2012. The Archaeological Imagination. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.
Shanks, M. 2013. Let Me Tell You About Hadrian’s Wall…; Heritage, Performance, Design. Amsterdam: Reinwardt Academie, Amsterdam School of the Arts.
Shanks, M. and C. Svabo. 2013. “Archaeology and Photography: A Pragmatology.” In Reclaiming Archaeology: Beyond The Tropes Of Modernity, edited by A. González-Ruibal, 89–102. London: Routledge.
Society for American Archaeology (SAA) 1996. “Principles of Archaeological Ethics.” Available online: http://www.saa.org/AbouttheSociety/PrinciplesofArchaeologicalEthics/tabid/203/Default.aspx, accessed January 12, 2014.
Solli, B. 2008. “Fra test via tegn og tekst til ting? Eller: Pimp my Site?.” Primitive tider 10: 155–164.
Sontag, S. 1966. “Against Interpretation.” In Against Interpretation and Other Essays, by Susan Sontag, 3–14. London: Penguin.
Steyerl, H. 2009. “In Defense of the Poor Image.” e-flux 10. Available online: http://www.e-flux.com/journal/in-defense-of-the-poor-image/
Svabo, C. and M. Shanks. forthcoming. “Experience as Excursion.” In Experience Design, edited by P. Benz. London: Bloomsbury.
Taylor, Lucien. 1996. “Iconophobia: How Anthropology Lost it At the Movies.” Transition 69: 64–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2935240
Thomas, J. 2004. Archaeology and Modernity. London: Routledge.
Thomas, J. 2008. “On the Ocularcentrism of Archaeology.” In Archaeology and the Politics of Vision in a Post-Modern Context, edited by J. Thomas and V. Oliveira Jorge, 1–12. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing .
Thomas, J. and V. O. Jorge, eds. 2008. Archaeology and the Politics of Vision in a Post-Modern Context. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Ticineto Clough, P. and J. Halley, eds. 2007. The Affective Turn: Theorizing the Social. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Ullén, M. 2009. “Pornography and its Critical Reception: Toward a Theory of Masturbation.” Jump Cut 51. Available online: http://www.ejumpcut.org/archive/jc51.2009/UllenPorn/
Van Dyke, R. M. 2006. “Seeing the Past: Visual Media in Archaeology.” American Anthropologist 108(2): 370–384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.2006.108.2.370
Welsch, W. 1996. Grenzgänge der Ästhetik. Ditzingen: Reclam.
Wickstead, H. 2013. “Between the Lines: Drawing Archaeology.” In The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Contemporary World, edited by P. Graves-Brown, R. Harrison and A. Piccini, 549–564. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Witmore, C. 2004. “Four Archaeological Engagements with Place.” Visual Anthropology Review 20(2): 57–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/var.2004.20.2.57
Witmore, C. forthcoming. “Archaeology and the New Materialisms.” Journal of Contemporary Archaeology.
Wolfe, C. 2010. What is Posthumanism? Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Žižek, S. 2006. The Parallax View. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.