Instructed Second Language Acquisition http://journal.equinoxpub.com/ISLA <p><em>Instructed Second Language Acquisition, </em>is a forum for reporting and for critical discussion of language research and practice across a wide range of languages and international contexts. It welcomes quantitative and qualitative research to address the role of external manipulation (e.g., instruction, learner self-directed learning, input manipulation) on second language development.</p> Equinox Publishing Ltd. en-US Instructed Second Language Acquisition 2398-4155 Editorial http://journal.equinoxpub.com/ISLA/article/view/18296 Alessandro Benati Elena Nuzzo Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 4 2 109–110 109–110 10.1558/isla.42244 Key Questions in Second Language Acquisition: An Introduction by B. VanPatten, M. Smith and A. Benati (2020) http://journal.equinoxpub.com/ISLA/article/view/18379 <div>Key Questions in Second Language Acquisition: An Introduction by B. VanPatten, M. Smith and A. Benati (2020)</div> <div>Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, xvi + 212pp.</div> John W. Schwieter Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 4 2 258–262 258–262 10.1558/isla.41958 Online methods and tasks in research measuring the effects of processing instruction http://journal.equinoxpub.com/ISLA/article/view/18297 <p>Empirical research measuring the effects of processing instruction comes largely from offline tasks. This introductory article to the current special issue provides readers with the following: (1) a brief description of processing instruction; (2) a short review of previous offline research; (3) a review of more recent online studies measuring real-time sentence comprehension.</p> Alessandro Benati Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 4 2 111–123 111–123 10.1558/isla.40641 Prior knowledge and other individual differences in the development of accuracy over the time-course of a pre-test/treatment/post-test study of instructed second language acquisition http://journal.equinoxpub.com/ISLA/article/view/18298 <p>Time-course data are temporal data that can be explored statically as an outcome measure of accuracy or dynamically from evolutionary and developmental perspectives. The present study examines the development and evolution of accuracy throughout the time-course of a pre-test/treatment/post-test study of instructed second language acquisition. The treatment is processing instruction (PI), which has a long history of positive results. PI research has overwhelmingly compared pre-test with post-test accuracy scores. The present study provides a fine-grained analysis as accuracy evolved and developed sentence by sentence. We analyse two sentence types: baseline active sentences and the target of instruction, passive sentences. Participants were divided into two groups, higher/lower prior knowledge, based on their pre-test scores processing passive sentences. Typically, PI research excludes higher prior knowledge participants, but here they are a comparison group. Our base measurement of development is an accuracy trend, defined as at least three correct answers in a row. We found that the number and length of accuracy trends increased over the time-course of the study and are affected by both sentence type and prior knowledge. The higher prior knowledge group always seems to have the advantage. Both prior knowledge groups benefit from instruction, but in different ways. We also found individual differences within the lower prior knowledge group: some participants benefited a great deal from instruction, some very little, and for some their accuracy with the baseline active sentences was temporarily destabilised.</p> James F. Lee Stephen Doherty Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 4 2 124–157 124–157 10.1558/isla.40608 An eye-tracking study on the effects of structured input and traditional instruction on the acquisition of English passive forms http://journal.equinoxpub.com/ISLA/article/view/18373 <p>The present study explores the effects of structured input and traditional instruction on the acquisition of English passive forms using online measurements (eye-tracking). Previous empirical research investigating the effects of processing instruction through offline measurements (sentence and discourse-level) has overall shown that it is an effective pedagogical intervention. Research investigating the main factor responsible for the effectiveness of processing instruction has confirmed that it is the structured input component that is the causative factor for the positive effects of processing instruction. The two main questions of this study are: (1) What are the effects of structured input and traditional instruction on accuracy when measured by an eye-tracking picture selection task? (2) Would possible differences in accuracy between structured input and traditional instruction be accompanied by changes in eye-movement patterns? To provide answers to the questions formulated in this study, one eye-tracking study was carried out. Sixty-four school-age learners (15–16 years old) participated and were assigned to one of two groups: structured input (n = 32 or traditional instruction (n = 32). Neither instructional group received explicit information. A pre- and post-training design was adopted and the two groups received two different instructional treatments (structured input vs traditional instruction). Participants were assessed through a picture selection eye-tracking task to measure accuracy and eye-movement patterns while they were processing auditory sentences. Results of the eye-tracking task indicated that the structured input group achieved significantly higher accuracy scores compared with&nbsp; the group receiving traditional instruction. The main findings from the present study reveal that structured input training might cause a change in learners’ eye-movement patterns.</p> Alessandro Benati Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 4 2 158–179 158–179 10.1558/isla.40642 Processing instruction effects regardless of input modality and developmental processing constraints? A school lab classroom study on the morphosyntactic acquisition of L2-English http://journal.equinoxpub.com/ISLA/article/view/18374 <p>We investigated whether Austrian L2-English learners would benefit more from&nbsp;written or auditory processing instruction (PI) on the third person singular -(e)&nbsp;s tense form. The instruction and all three tests (pre-test, immediate post-test&nbsp;and delayed post-test two weeks after the instruction) were conducted in school&nbsp;lab classrooms. Using accuracy scores and reaction times for the interpretation tasks and accuracy scores for a gap-filling task, this study extrapolates the&nbsp;instructional effects according to modality type. We aimed to find out whether&nbsp;(a) the modality of the PI affects its efficacy regardless of the imposed develop-mental processing constraints of the target feature and how (i.e. resulting in&nbsp;faster or slower and more or less accurate processing); (b) whether any differences in gains could be attributed to the modality of the assessment task; and&nbsp;(c) whether any gained positive effects of instruction (regardless of modality) are&nbsp;maintained over time.</p> Tanja Angelovska Dietmar Roehm Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 4 2 180–202 180–202 10.1558/isla.40640 A self-paced reading study of language processing and retention comparing guided induction and deductive instruction http://journal.equinoxpub.com/ISLA/article/view/18377 <p>The present study measured the effects of guided-inductive (GI) versus deductive computer-delivered instruction on the processing and retention of the Spanish true passive using a self-paced reading design. Fifty-four foreign language learners of Spanish participated in the study, which operationalised guided-inductive and deductive approaches using an adaptation of the PACE model and processing instruction (PI), respectively. Results revealed that each experimental group significantly improved after the pedagogical intervention, and that the GI group outperformed the PI group in terms of accuracy on an immediate post-test. Differences between the groups, however, were not durative; at the delayed post-test, each group performed the same. Additional analyses revealed that the GI group spent over twice as much time on task during instruction than the PI group, with no long-term advantages on processing, calling into question the pedagogical justification for implementing GI at a curricular level.</p> Paul A. Malovrh James F. Lee Stephen Doherty Alecia Nichols Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 4 2 203–234 203–234 10.1558/isla.40636 A self-paced-reading study on the effects of structured input and textual enhancement on the acquisition of the Italian subjunctive of doubt http://journal.equinoxpub.com/ISLA/article/view/18378 <p>The present study investigates the effects of structured input and textual enhancement on the acquisition of the Italian subjunctive of doubt using a self-paced reading test. The main questions of this study are: (1) Would L2 learners exposed to structured input and textual enhancement demonstrate sensitivity to violations of the Italian subjunctive of doubt as measured by a self-paced reading test? (2) Would L2 learners exposed to structured input and textual enhancement demonstrate the ability to comprehend sentences containing the subjunctive of doubt? Eighteen Chinese (L1) subjects learning Italian in a private school were randomly assigned to two instructional groups: structured input (n = 9); and textual enhancement (n = 9). Neither instructional treatments included explicit information. The main results from the self-paced reading task indicated that only the structured input group showed higher sensitivity to violations, and this group improved from pre-test to post-test in the ability to comprehend sentences containing the target feature under investigation.</p> Gaia Chiuchiù Alessandro Benati Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 4 2 235–257 235–257 10.1558/isla.40659