Developmentally moderated focus on form instruction and feedback in an Indonesian kindergarten EFL programme

Acquisition of plural marking


  • Satomi Kawaguchi Western Sydney University
  • Isriani Hardini Western Sydney University/State Islamic Institute of Pekalongan



Developmentally moderated focus on form (DMFonF), English as a foreign language (EFL), Processability Theory, child language acquisition, Indonesian kindergarten


This study investigates the effect of developmentally moderated focus on form (DMFonF) instruction and feedback within processability theory (PT) on early grammatical development in an Indonesian kindergarten EFL programme, focusing on the acquisition of plural marking of nouns. The study has a pre-test, DMFonF intervention and post-test design. The participants were a teacher, and ten 1st-year and ten 2nd-year kindergarten children. Before the study, children received a meaning-based EFL programme. The children’s English development was measured based on PT stages pre- and post-test. Linguistic classroom environments before and during the DMFonF programme were analysed based on the DMFonF feedback categories. Regardless of how long they had been learning English, all the children were at the single-word stage at pre-test. They had all acquired lexical plural at post-test. Most of the children also acquired phrasal plural agreement. Additionally, the linguistic environment was much richer in
DMFonF classes than in meaning-based classes.


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Author Biographies

Satomi Kawaguchi, Western Sydney University

Satomi Kawaguchi, PhD, is an associate professor of linguistics at the School of Humanities and Communication Arts, Western Sydney University. Her research focuses on second/foreign-language learning and teaching. She works within the processability theory framework and is interested in theory and research-driven practice in language learning.

Isriani Hardini, Western Sydney University/State Islamic Institute of Pekalongan

Isriani Hardini has a PhD in Linguistics from Western Sydney University. She is a lecturer in the Faculty of Education and Teacher Training at the State Islamic Institute of Pekalongan, Central Java, Indonesia. Her research interests include second/foreign-language acquisition within the processability theory framework and bilingualism.


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How to Cite

Kawaguchi, S., & Hardini, I. (2022). Developmentally moderated focus on form instruction and feedback in an Indonesian kindergarten EFL programme: Acquisition of plural marking. Instructed Second Language Acquisition, 6(2), 163–195.