http://journal.equinoxpub.com/IJSLL/issue/feed International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law 2020-03-03T12:56:13+00:00 Peter French, Michael Jessen, Alison Johnson, Frances Rock peter.french@york.ac.uk Open Journal Systems <p><em>The International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law</em>&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes articles on any aspect of forensic language, speech and audio analysis.</p> http://journal.equinoxpub.com/IJSLL/article/view/17247 Editorial 2020-03-03T12:56:05+00:00 Peter French aparkin@equinoxpub.com 2020-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. http://journal.equinoxpub.com/IJSLL/article/view/17262 Discourse-information-based automatic evaluation of public legal education texts 2020-03-03T12:56:12+00:00 Juan Liu 305204374@qq.com 2020-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. http://journal.equinoxpub.com/IJSLL/article/view/17263 Multimodal construction of ‘rule of law’ in Chinese anti-corruption public service advertisements 2020-03-03T12:56:12+00:00 Yujie Liu jane2012liu@163.com 2020-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. http://journal.equinoxpub.com/IJSLL/article/view/17258 Improving objectivity, balance and forensic fitness in LAAP 2020-03-03T12:56:10+00:00 Jim Hoskin jah638@york.ac.uk Tina Cambier-Langeveld GM.Cambier.Langeveld@ind.nl Paul Foulkes paul.foulkes@york.ac.uk <p>This paper is a response to Yaron Matras’s article ‘Duly verified? Language analysis in UK asylum applications of Syrian refugees’. Matras evaluates 50 reports by the Stockholm-based agency Verified AB. He introduces his own approach, which he calls ‘inductive-dialectological’, and claims that it addresses many of the problems in Verified’s approach. We respond on a number of fronts. We interpret the role and duty of the expert performing language analysis in the asylum procedure as essentially the same as that of a forensic expert in criminal law. We argue that Matras’s approach fails to adhere to principles of sound forensic evidence, thereby risking biased conclusions. Furthermore, we contend that Matras’s view on the question to be addressed is not in line with the trier of fact’s requirements. We also consider the need for a fixed conclusion scale, the institutional demands driving casework and the large number of disparate conclusions among experts. We conclude with some advice to asylum courts and LAAP practitioners.</p> 2020-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. http://journal.equinoxpub.com/IJSLL/article/view/17265 Book announcements 2020-03-03T12:56:13+00:00 Richard Powell richard.powell@nihon-u.ac.jp 2020-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. http://journal.equinoxpub.com/IJSLL/article/view/17248 Who owns your voice? Linguistic and legal perspectives on the relationship between vocal distinctiveness and the rights of the individual speaker 2020-03-03T12:56:05+00:00 Dominic Watt dominic.watt@york.ac.uk Peter S. Harrison peter.harrison@york.ac.uk Lily Cabot-King l.cabotking29@gmail.com <p>Only in very recent times has the concept of ‘ownership’ of a human voice begun to demand proper consideration in terms of its legal implications. The current lack of clarity with respect to the rights afforded to individuals and organisations in this area is something that must be addressed as a matter of some urgency, given that voice samples are now collected on an unprecedented scale, with or without the knowledge or consent of the person(s) who produced the captured speech. In this article we explore the issue of voice ownership from a variety of perspectives, starting with an attempt to define what the voice actually is, and then considering how representations of a talker’s voice at greater or lesser levels of concreteness (or ‘tangibility’) can be misappropriated and misused in unethical or unlawful ways.</p> 2020-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. http://journal.equinoxpub.com/IJSLL/article/view/17250 An illusion of understanding 2020-03-03T12:56:07+00:00 Aneta Pavlenko aneta.pavlenko@iln.uio.no Elizabeth Hepford ehepford@wesleyan.edu Scott Jarvis scott.jarvis@utah.edu 2020-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. http://journal.equinoxpub.com/IJSLL/article/view/17252 Tuning the performance of automatic speaker recognition in different conditions 2020-03-03T12:56:08+00:00 Radek Skarnitzl radek.skarnitzl@ff.cuni.cz Maral Asiaee m.asiaee@alzahra.ac.ir Mandana Nourbakhsh nourbakhsh@alzahra.ac.ir <div><span style='font-family: "Times New Roman", serif;'><span style="font-size: 16px;">Automatic speaker recognition applications have often been described as a ‘black </span></span><span style='font-family: "Times New Roman", serif;'><span style="font-size: 16px;">box’. This study explores the benefit of tuning procedures (condition adaptation and </span></span><span style='font-family: "Times New Roman", serif;'><span style="font-size: 16px;">reference normalisation) implemented in an i-vector PLDA framework ASR system, </span></span><span style='font-family: "Times New Roman", serif;'><span style="font-size: 16px;">VOCALISE. These procedures enable users to open the black box to a certain degree. </span></span><span style='font-family: "Times New Roman", serif;'><span style="font-size: 16px;">Subsets of two 100-speaker databases, one of Czech and the other of Persian </span></span><span style='font-family: "Times New Roman", serif;'><span style="font-size: 16px;">male speakers, are used for the baseline condition and for the tuning procedures. </span></span><span style='font-family: "Times New Roman", serif;'><span style="font-size: 16px;">The effect of tuning with cross-language material, as well as the effect of simulated </span></span><span style='font-family: "Times New Roman", serif;'><span style="font-size: 16px;">voice disguise, achieved by raising the fundamental frequency by four semitones </span></span><span style='font-family: "Times New Roman", serif;'><span style="font-size: 16px;">and resonance characteristics by 8%, are also examined. The results show superior </span></span><span style='font-family: "Times New Roman", serif;'><span style="font-size: 16px;">recognition performance (EER) for Persian than Czech in the baseline condition, </span></span><span style='font-family: "Times New Roman", serif;'><span style="font-size: 16px;">but an opposite result in the simulated disguise condition; possible reasons for this </span></span><span style='font-family: "Times New Roman", serif;'><span style="font-size: 16px;">are discussed. Overall, the study suggests that both condition adaptation and reference </span></span><span style='font-family: "Times New Roman", serif;'><span style="font-size: 16px;">normalisation are beneficial to recognition performance.</span></span></div> 2020-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. http://journal.equinoxpub.com/IJSLL/article/view/17255 Litigating without speaking legalese 2020-03-03T12:56:09+00:00 Matthew W.L. Yeung yeungmatty@gmail.com Janny H.C. Leung janny@cantab.net <p>The increasing number of unrepresented litigants in various jurisdictions raises the question of what challenges these lay people face in their access to justice. This article seeks to examine this by conducting a small ethnographic study and survey in Hong Kong. Based on 6 hours of courtroom observation in two cases and 8 hours of pre-trial, during trial and post-trial interview data obtained from 7 sessions, we show that unrepresented litigants may find navigating difficult legal phrases, legal homonymy, legal genre and linguistic repertoire in court particularly challenging. They also risk overestimating the merit of their case when they deploy lay strategies (i.e. a translation approach or a literal reading approach) to legal interpretation and case preparation. The survey results lend support to our ethnographic study by revealing why unrepresented litigants seem to be ill-prepared for their cases in the eyes of legal professionals. We conclude that unrepresented litigants face both linguistic and legal challenges during their participation in legal processes, and often these challenges are intertwined. We therefore suggest that both linguistic accommodation and legal assistance are essential to help unrepresented litigants participate effectively in legal processes. This is especially important in the adversarial courtrooms of common law jurisdictions, to ensure access to justice for the general public.</p> 2020-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. http://journal.equinoxpub.com/IJSLL/article/view/17260 IAFPA 2019 conference report 2020-03-03T12:56:11+00:00 Katherine Earnshaw katherine.earnshaw@jpfrench.com Sula Ross S.M.Ross@hud.ac.uk 2020-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. http://journal.equinoxpub.com/IJSLL/article/view/17264 <i>Shallow Equality and Symbolic Jurisprudence in Multilingual Legal Orders</i> by Janny H. C. Leung (2019) 2020-03-03T12:56:13+00:00 Javier Moreno-Rivero jm2227@cam.ac.uk <div><em>Shallow Equality and Symbolic Jurisprudence in Multilingual Legal Orders </em>by&nbsp;Janny H. C. Leung (2019), Oxford University Press (Oxford Studies in Language and Law) 305 pp</div> 2020-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd.