Spiritual Well-being, Attitude, Involvement, Perceptions and Competencies
Measuring the Self-Perception of Nursing Students During 2018, 2019 and the First Wave of COVID-19 in 2020
Keywords:spirituality, spiritual care, spiritual well-being, self-assessment, COVID-19, nursing, nursing education, Austria
Developing spirituality and spiritual care competencies in nursing students is an important task. In German-speaking countries, research investigating spiritual care in nursing teaching and nursing practice is limited. The aim of this study was to measure nursing students’ perceptions of their spiritual care competencies, care attitudes, involvement, perception and well-being. Three groups of second-year undergraduate nursing students in the years 2018, 2019 and 2020 participated in a cross-sectional study using validated scales to measure students’ spiritual well-being (JAREL), spiritual care attitudes and involvement (SAIL), spirituality and spiritual care perceptions (SSCRS), and competencies (SCCS). Nursing students (N = 191) show a high level of spiritual attitude and involvement. The groups attained similar scores on the SSCRS, but the group of 2020 achieved the highest score, indicating a broader view of spirituality. This group also scored highest on the SCCS, which shows a higher self-perceived competence in delivering spiritual care. At the same time, the 2020 group reported significantly low spiritual well-being scores. Students rated their competencies in delivering spiritual care as high. This may be negatively affected if their spiritual well-being remains low. Further investigation is needed to clarify how to tackle this shortcoming in educational training.
Chuengsatiansup, K. (2003). Spirituality and health: An initial proposal to incorporate spiritual health in health impact assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 23,3–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-9255(02)00037-9
EPICC (2019). Enhancing nurses’ and midwives’ competence in providing spiritual care through innovative education and compassionate care. Draft Spiritual Care Education Standard (Online). Retrieved 29 January 2021 from https://blogs.staffs.ac.uk/epicc/files/2019/02/EPICC-Standard-final.pdf
Gesundheits- und Krankenpflege-Ausbildungsverordnung (GuK-AV) (2010). BGBl. II Nr. 179/1999 i.d.F. BGBl. II. Nr. 296/2010. Retrieved 29 January 2021 from http://www.ratg.at/gesetze/gesetz/GuK-AV/10011179
Gesundheits- und Krankenpflegegesetz (GuKG) (2018). BGBl. I Nr. 108/1997 i.d.F. BGBl. I Nr. 59/2018. Retrieved 29 January 2021 from https://www.jusline.at/gesetz/gukg
Ghorbani, M., Mohammadi, E., Aghabozorgi, R., & Ramezani, M. (2021). Spiritual care interventions in nursing: An integrative literature review. Supportive Care in Cancer, 29, 1165–1181. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-020-05747-9
Hungelmann, J., Kenkelrossi, E., Klaasen, L., & Stollenwerk, R. (1996). Focus on spiritual well-being: Harmonious interconnectedness of mind-body-spirit – use of the JAREL Spiritual Well-Being Scale – assessment of spiritual well-being is essential to the health of individuals. Geriatric Nursing, 17, 262–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0197-4572(96)80238-2
ICN (2012). The ICN code of ethics for nurses. International Council of Nurses (Online). Geneva, Switzerland. https://www.icn.ch/sites/default/files/inline-files/2012_ICN_Codeofethicsfornurses_%20eng.pdf [Accessed 27.03.2019].
Kristen, C. (2018). Migrationsspezifische Ungleichheiten im deutschen Hochschulbereich. Journal for Educational Research Online, 6(2014)2, 113–134. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-04322-3_15
Kuven, B. M., & Giske, T. (2019). Talking about spiritual matters: First year nursing students’ experiences of an assignment on spiritual conversations. Nurse Education Today, 75, 53–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2019.01.012
McSherry, W., Draper, P., & Kendrick, D. (2002). The construct validity of a rating scale designed to assess spirituality and spiritual care. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 39(7), 723–734. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7489(02)00014-7
Meezenbroek, E. D. J., & Garssen, B. (2008). A multi-dimensional spirituality questionnaire, suited for use among religious and non-religious people. Psycho-Oncology, 17, S104–S105. https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2012.31017
Mohr, M. (2020). Statistiken zur Religion in Österreich. Retrieved 15 September 2020 from https://de.statista.com/themen/2066/religion-in-oesterreich
Paal, P., Helo, Y., & Frick, E. (2015a). Spiritual care training provided to healthcare professionals: A systematic review. Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling, 69(1), 19–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/1542305015572955
Paal, P., Leget, C., & Goodhead, A. (2015b). Spiritual care education: Results from an EAPC survey. European Journal of Palliative Care, 22(2), 91–95. http://www.haywardpublishing.co.uk/NeedRegister.aspx?pageid=58&JID=4&Year=2015&Edition=533
Paal, P., Neenan, K., Muldowney, Y., Brady, V., & Timmins, F. (2018). Spiritual leadership as an emergent solution to transform the healthcare workplace. Journal of Nursing Management, 26, 335–337. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12637
Peng-Keller, S., & Rettke, H. (2017). Spiritual Care und Pflegewissenschaft. Ein Beitrag zum aktuellen Diskussionsstand im deutschsprachigen Raum. Spiritual Care, 6(4), 405–410. https://doi.org/10.1515/spircare-2017-0023
Ramezani, M., Ahmadi, F., Mohammadi, E., & Kazemnejad, A. (2014). Spiritual care in nursing: A concept analysis. International Nursing Review, 61, 211–219. https://doi.org/10.1111/inr.12099
Ross, L., van Leeuwen, R., Baldacchino, D., Giske, T., McSherry, W., Narayanasamy, A., Downes, C., Jarvis, P., & Schep-Akkerman, A. (2014). Student nurses’ perceptions of spirituality and competence in delivering spiritual care: A European pilot study. Nurse Education Today, 34, 697–702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2013.09.014
Ross, L., Giske, T., van Leeuwen, R., Baldacchino, D., McSherry, W., Narayanasamy, A., Jarvis, P., & Schep-Akkerman, A. (2016). Factors contributing to student nurses’/midwives’ perceived competency in spiritual care. Nurse Education Today, 36, 445–451. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2015.10.005
Ross, L., McSherry, W., Giske, T., van Leeuwen, R., Schep-Akkerman, A., Koslander, T., Hall, J., Steenfeldt, V. O., & Jarvis, P. (2018). Nursing and midwifery students’ perceptions of spirituality, spiritual care, and spiritual care competency: A prospective, longitudinal, correlational European study. Nurse Education Today, 67, 64–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2018.05.002
Schwamberger, H., Biechl, R., & Habel, N. (2008). FH-Gesundheits- und Krankenpflege-Ausbildungsverordnung (FH-GuK-AV), BGBI. II Nr. 200/2008. Verlag Österreich. Retrieved 29 January 2021 from https://elibrary.verlagoesterreich.at/book/99.105005/9783704681751
van Leeuwen, R., Tiesinga, L. J., Middel, B., Post, D., & Jochemsen, H. (2009). The validity and reliability of an instrument to assess nursing competencies in spiritual care. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18, 2857–2869. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02594.x
How to Cite
© Equinox Publishing Ltd.
For information regarding our Open Access policy, click here.