Gender and Language <p><em>Gender and Language</em> offers an international forum for research on and debates about feminist research on gender and language.<em>Gender and Language</em>&nbsp;showcases research on femininities and masculinities, on heterosexual and queer identities, on gender at the level of individual performance or perception and on gender at the level of institutions and ideologies.</p> Equinox Publishing Ltd. en-US Gender and Language 1747-6321 Feminist refusal meets enmity <p>.</p> Rodrigo Borba Kira Hall Mie Hiramoto Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-05-21 2020-05-21 14 1 1 7 10.1558/genl.40883 Projecting masculinities or breaking sociolinguistic norms? The role of women’s representation in students’ profane language use <p>This paper explores how students from University of Ghana’s Commonwealth&nbsp;Hall (the only all-male hall of residence) project diverse masculine identities&nbsp;through how they represent women in their use of profanity and other uncouth&nbsp;linguistic forms. Data were collected from recorded profane songs, observations&nbsp;from various case studies of the use of insults and profane expressions&nbsp;and interviews with users of these expressions. The data generally present a&nbsp;picture of sexual and verbal abuse as ‘ideal’ ways of showing male dominance&nbsp;and power over women. These abuses are valued by the students, even though&nbsp;they are not expected practices in Ghanaian society. The paper concludes that&nbsp;although some students claim they use this language ‘just for fun’, disguising it&nbsp;as harmless only makes it easy to explore obsessions without a sense of guilt. If&nbsp;not properly checked, such obsessions may find expression in how women are&nbsp;treated.</p> Grace Diabah Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-05-21 2020-05-21 14 1 99 120 10.1558/genl.37943 ‘Should Latinas go blond?’ Media representation and the regulation of Latina bodies and Latinas’ social and cultural practices in a beauty magazine <p>In the United States, ‘Latinas’ is an ethnic category that includes a very diverse population. Since second- and third-generation Latinxs tend to be Englishdominant speakers, it is common to see publications in English that target this group. This study analyses how one of these publications, a beauty magazine for Latinas, uses different linguistic devices in their interviews and beauty advice columns to create a racially/ethnically homogeneous image of this community. My analysis focuses on this publication’s articles about hair, with particular attention to metaphors, the use of Spanish, and the indexicality of the term Latina itself. It shows that while characteristics of, and stereotypes about, Latinas are praised and celebrated, the advice offered contains instructions to regulate the Latina body to conform to beauty norms that are more valued in the United States, those associated with White women. Also, my analysis shows how this publication establishes different levels of Latinidad (Latinity) in which being too Latina represents traditional and primitive values that seem to be part of these Latinas’ imagined community’s heritage but not their own. I argue that these advice articles are intended to discursively create a Latina body acceptable to mainstream America; that while attempting to create a homogeneous image of Latinas, the publication paints a picture of tolerance toward Latinas that many of them do not experience; and that the articles do not take into account racial, social, ethnic and sexual differences among Latinas. I show how instead this publication seeks to regulate the Latina body and establish which Latinas’ social and cultural practices are acceptable for White America, so that they do not disrupt the predominant social order.</p> Deyanira Rojas-Sosa Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-05-21 2020-05-21 14 1 49 72 10.1558/genl.36302 Metaphors we come out by <p>This paper uses critical metaphor analysis to explore the main source domains of cognitive metaphors in online coming out advice for LGB individuals. It highlights how the ontological metaphor to come out (of the closet) is remetaphorised by a number of structural metaphors, especially coming out is movement. Noting that Queer theorists have critiqued coming out both as a concept and as an imperative, the paper argues that the coming out advice examined here perpetuates this discourse through the use of coming out is movement (esp. a journey) and coming out is conflict and suggests that other structural metaphors could be more useful to the readers of coming out advice.</p> Deborah A. Chirrey Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-05-21 2020-05-21 14 1 8 27 10.1558/genl.37378 Reading relationships, worlds and reality <p>Existing literature highlights the gendered worlds of children’s toys, Lego City and Friends included, which target boys and girls respectively. The current article critically examines City and Friends home pages, since these act as a concise introduction to their online and offline spheres. I am particularly interested in how the two home pages differently summarise the sets and represent ‘reality’ for users; by this, I refer to the toys’ relationship with users’ real-life existences, both regarding the modality of their represented worlds and how users are encouraged to interact with the toy. Analysis indicates that, although both explicitly position themselves as toys to be used in viewers’ worlds, Friends and City present disparate realities and relationships with users. Friends promotes both real-life and imaginary friendship for consumers through interacting with its girl friendship group, whereas City emphasises action-oriented relationships where users are elevated to a heroic status in the imaginary city. I show how these relationships are realised through different semiotic resources, including visual modalities, linguistic choices and website format. I consider the intricacies of their semiotic choices and conclude by discussing the potential implications of these choices for shaping how children interact with and emotionally engage with the toys.</p> Emma Putland Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-05-21 2020-05-21 14 1 73 98 10.1558/genl.37861 ‘Please abuse me’ <p>In the light of Huizinga’s conceptualisation of play and Bakhtinian carnival&nbsp;theory, this article exemplifies the ludic-carnivalesque qualities of female masochism&nbsp;on China’s social media. Arguably, the joint venture of play and carnival&nbsp;frameworks allows a de-pathological account of female masochism under the&nbsp;male gaze and a reclaiming of the feminist agenda through the critical reading&nbsp;of abusive texts in the pan-entertaining digital era. Thus, the study fills a gap&nbsp;regarding non-sexual female masochistic pleasure in the literature of feminist&nbsp;studies. The article has found billingsgate language, or the language of marketplace,&nbsp;a fertile ground to investigate patriarchy and objectification. It contends&nbsp;that billingsgate language, which hails a ludic-carnivalesque exposure of&nbsp;present patriarchal biases against women and imbalanced gender power relations,&nbsp;is pregnant with a power of deconstruction that overturns present social&nbsp;orders in favour of gender equalities.</p> Kunming Li Jan Blommaert Copyright (c) 2020 Equinox Publishing Ltd. 2020-05-21 2020-05-21 14 1 28 48 10.1558/genl.36436