Pragmatic development, the L2 motivational self-system, and other affective factors in a study-abroad context

The case of Japanese learners of English

Authors

  • Akiko Inagaki Tokyo City University

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1558/eap.38218

Keywords:

pragmatic development, implicature, indirect refusals, motivation

Abstract

This study investigates (1) whether the pragmatic competence of Japanese learners of English improves when studying abroad and (2) the relationship between the learners' pragmatic development and their motivational factors. In order to investigate the pragmatic comprehension of conventional/non-conventional implicatures, a Pragmatic Comprehension Test (PCT) was given to approximately 150 Japanese learners of English before and after a sixteen-week study-abroad programme. A questionnaire exploring motivational factors, such as intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, L2 ideal/ought-to selves, Can-Do attitude, and willingness to communicate was also circulated amongst the participants before the programme. Factor analysis was performed to determine which factors were related to learners' motivation, and six factors were selected. The results indicated that the participants developed comprehension of conventional implicature but not non-conventional implicature. A cluster analysis was conducted on the participants' PCT scores, and the participants were divided into three groups. The highest scoring group showed a statistically significant result on one factor - confidence.

Author Biography

Akiko Inagaki, Tokyo City University

Akiko Inagaki is currently an English lecturer at the Foreign Language Education Center of Tokyo City University. Her areas of research interest include L2 pragmatics, motivation, and intercultural communication.

References

Alcón-Soler, E. (2015). Pragmatic learning and study abroad: Effects of instruction and length of stay. System, 48, 62-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.09.005

Council of Europe. (2001). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-2271-7

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). Handbook of self-determination. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The L2 motivational self system. In Z. Do?rnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 9–42). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Freed, B., Dewey, D., Segalowitz, N., & Halter, R. (2004). The language contact profile. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(2), 349–356. https://doi.org/10.1017/S027226310426209X

Hiromori, T. (2006). Gaikokugo no doukizuke wo takameru riron to jissen (Foreign language learners’ motivation: Research and practice). Tokyo: Taga syuppan.

Kasper, G., & Schmidt, R. (1996). Development issues in interlanguage pragmatics. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18(2), 149–169. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100014868

MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S. C., Clément, R., & Conrod, S. (2001). Willingness to communicate, social support, and language-learning orientations of immersion students. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23(3), 369–388. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263101003035

MacIntyre, P. D., Clément, R., Dörnyei, Z., & Noels, K. (1998). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. The Modern Language Journal, 82(4), 545–562. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1998.tb05543.x

Nakahira, S., Maekawa, Y., & Yashima, T. (2010). Relationships among motivation, psychological needs, FL WTC, and can-do statements of English language learning based on self-determination theory: Preliminary study of non-English major junior college students in Japan. JACET Kansai Journal, 12, 44–55.

Niezgoda, K., & Roever, C. (2001). Pragmatic and grammatical awareness: A function of learning environment? In K. R. Rose & G. Kasper (Eds.), Pragmatics in language teaching (pp. 63–79). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524797.008

Nishida, R. (2013). The L2 self, motivation, international posture, willingness to communicate and can-do among Japanese university learners of English. Language Education & Technology, 50, 43–67.

Nishida, R., & Yashima, T. (2009). An investigation of factors affecting willingness to communicate and interest in foreign countries among young learners. Language Education and Technology, 46, 151–170.

Noels, K. A., Pelletier, G., Clément, R., & Vallerand, R. J. (2000). Why are you learning a second language? Motivational orientations and self-determination theory. Language Learning, 50,(1) 57–85. https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00111

Ryan, S. (2009). Self and identity in L2 motivation in Japan: The ideal L2 self and Japanese learners of English. In Z. Do?rnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 120–143). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Schmidt, R., Boraie, D., & Kassabgy, O. (1996). Foreign language motivation: Internal structure and external connections. In R. Oxford (Ed.), Language learning motivation: Pathways to the new century (Technical Report No. 11, pp. 9–70). Honolulu: University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.

Tagashira, K., Yamato, K., & Isoda, T. (2011). Japanese EFL learners’ pragmatic awareness through the looking glass of motivational profiles. JALT Journal, 33, 5–26.

Taguchi, N. (2008). Cognition, language contact, and the development of pragmatic comprehension in a study-abroad context. Language Learning, 58(1), 33–71. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2007.00434.x

Taguchi, N. (2012). Context, individual differences and pragmatic competence. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847696106

Taguchi, N. (2018). Description and explanation of pragmatic development: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research. System, 75, 23–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2018.03.010

Taguchi, N., & Roever, C. (2017). Second language pragmatics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Tajeddin, Z., & Moghadam, A. Z. (2012). Interlanguage pragmatic motivation: Its construct and impact on speech act production. RELC Journal, 43(3), 353–372. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688212468481

Takahashi, S. (2001). The role of input enhancement in developing pragmatic competence. In K. R. Rose, & G. Kasper (Eds.), Pragmatics in language teaching (pp. 171–199). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524797.014

Takahashi, S. (2005). Pragmalinguistic awareness: Is it related to motivation and proficiency? Applied Linguistics, 26(1), 90–120. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amh040

Takahashi, S. (2012). Individual differences and pragmalinguistic awareness: A structural equation modeling approach. Language, Culture, and Communication, 4, 103–125.

Takahashi, S. (2015). The effects of learner profiles on pragmalinguistic awareness and learning. System, 48, 48–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.09.004

Ueki, M., & Takeuchi, O. (2015). Study abroad and motivation to learn a second language: Exploring the possibility of the L2 motivational self system. Language Education & Technology, 52, 1–25.

Ueki, M., & Takeuchi, O. (2017). The impact of studying abroad experience on the affective changes related to L2 motivation: A qualitative study of the process of change. In M. T. Apple, D. D. Silva, & T. Fellner (Eds.), L2 selves and motivations in Asian contexts. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Ushioda, E. (2006). Language motivation in a reconfigured Europe: Access, identity, autonomy. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 27(2), 148–161. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434630608668545

Ushioda, E., & Dörnyei, Z. (2009). Motivation, language identities and the L2 self: A theoretical overview. In Z. Do?rnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Yashima, T. (2002). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The Japanese EFL context. The Modern Language Journal, 86(1), 54–66. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4781.00136

Yashima, T. (2004). Gaikokugo communication no jyoui to douki (Motivation and affect in foreign language communication). Osaka: Kansai University Press.

Yashima, T., Zenuk?Nishide, L., & Shimizu, K. (2004). The influence of attitudes and affect on willingness to communicate and second language communication. Language Learning, 54(1), 119–152. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2004.00250.x

Published

2019-04-30

How to Cite

Inagaki, A. (2019). Pragmatic development, the L2 motivational self-system, and other affective factors in a study-abroad context: The case of Japanese learners of English. East Asian Pragmatics, 4(1), 145-168. https://doi.org/10.1558/eap.38218